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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT; 1994; 298 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentA few words on this English edition:
View the documentImpressum
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction to the Guidelines
View the documentCommon Difficulties
close this folderQuestions List
View the document1 EXTENSION WORKER
View the document2 EXTENSION PLANNING
View the document3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER
View the document4 EXTENSION METHODS
View the document5 EXTENSION ACCESSORIES
View the document6 EXTENSION CONTEXT
Open this folder and view contentsTheory Chapters
 

4 EXTENSION METHODS


FIGURE

The success of extension depends to a very great extent on the choice of suitable methods. Furthermore, we have noted that the extension methods used focus on different areas of teaching and we have wondered whether our efforts in a training context really include the areas of teaching that are decisive for the success of extension. Here is an example to show what we mean:

Family Planning

What does the success of family planning extension depend on?

The ability to read numbers

· to follow a calendar
· to read a thermometer
· to understand biology
· to master contraception methods
· to understand demographic interrelationships

In other words, on some knowledge / skills

Frankness

· the willingness of men and women to talk with each other
· a sense of responsibility
· discipline
· social and cultural freedom or on personal attitudes/behaviour

(My project) .............................................

What does the success of extension depend on?

Knowledge/skills

Attitudes/behaviour

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

Put a tick in the box where your project makes the most effort:

[]

[]

Now put a tick in the box where you notice the most frequent causes of difficulties and failures:

[]

[]

What do you conclude from this?

What alternative extension methods do you suggest?

Individual Counselling

Definition The focus of individual counselling is a specific problem of the client (transfer of the farm/succession, building plans, special crops).

Principles

· Only the one concerned can really know his/her problem
· Ensure confidentiality (e.g. no notes to be taken during the discussion)
· Keep your promises
· Ask rather than tell


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is interested in individual counselling (is counselling mainly offered or asked for)?

- How can the individual farming families be contacted?

- What extension subjects require individual counselling?

- What extension subjects make the expense of individual counselling worth wile?

- How much time and cost can be saved by prior specific information in group counselling

- What are the advantages of individual counselling?

- What training do the extension workers receive in using and assessing communication and problem-solving methods?

- Who can provide this kind of training?

- What are the traditional communication customs?

- How can women be addressed?

- What taboos must not be mentioned?

- What topics can be mentioned only to women or only to men?

- How should the counsellor react when offered gifts?

- How much friendship/preferential treatment is compatible with the role of counsellor?

- How does the extension worker's appearance influence the individual counselling?

- How can traditional customs of visiting fit with the extension worker's daily work routine (rules of hospitality, work programme)?

- What kind of behavior on the part of the counsellor can improve individual counselling?

- What mistakes must the counsellor avoid during individual counselling?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
H Problem Solving Assistance
M Dialogues in Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

69 Problem solving and decision making
78 Communication
107 Individual extension

Volume 2:

281 E5: The methodology of extension talks
367 F9: Conducting individual extension talks
371 F10: The advisory process

Group Counselling

Note Group counselling is particularly suited for discussing problems which affect a whole group of people in a similar way (e.g. creating awareness or solving a problem).

Principles

· The farmers must define their problems themselves
· The group members give each other advice - even between meetings
· Group size should not exceed 20 persons
· Let the group know about the subject and the agenda before the meeting
· Be punctual; don't make the group wait for you


FIGURE

Question List

- Who suggested using group counselling?

- What is the aim of the group counselling?

- Who will be taking part?

- Why do the participants take part in this meeting?

- How is the meeting different from other group meetings (demonstrations, field days, visits)?

- What forms of counselling and discussion fit with the local customs?

- Who helped to decide the programme of the meeting?

- Who will preside the group meeting (counsellor, group leader, or a outside facilitator)?

- What sequences should there be in a group meeting?

- How do these sequences vary (group composition, group size, subject treated, work method)?

- What details are particularly important to include in the meeting?

- How will the group-meetings be followed-up (discussions, other meetings, feedback)?

- How are the discussions recorded?

- How can those who stay at home be informed of the discussion?

- How can the effect of a specific instruction be assessed?

- What facilities would be useful for a group meeting?

- How can best use be made of participants' experience?

- How can controversial issues be dealt with during the meeting?

- How and where can the counsellor obtain further training in animation techniques and facilitation skills?

- How can outside monitoring and support help?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
F Adult Education
H Problem Solving Assistance
M Dialogues in Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

69 Problem solving and decision making
73 Groups and group processes
110 Group extension

Volume 2:

241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help
"GRAAP"
311 E12: Evaluating training events
329 E17: Using visualisation
403 G9 - G11: Teaching aids

Field Days

Note Field days help farmers and extension workers to consider the state of the crops and to discuss them together.

Principle

The groups should be small (about 10 people).


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is the target audience of the field day (extension workers, farmers, farmers' families)?
- Which needs of the target group will be addressed during the field day?
- How is the date of a field day chosen?
- What are the objectives of the field day?
- What information should the field day provide and to whom?
- What is the link between the field day and other extension work?
- What arrangements must be made with the farmer whose fields will be visited?
- What information is particularly important to include in the field day and who will mention it?
- What opportunities are there for asking questions and exchanging experience?
- What written information should be distributed to those attending the field day?
- How can the participants make use of what they see?
- How can the impressions of the field day be passed to those who stayed at home?
- What transport will be required for the field day?
- What alternative programme is planned in case of bad weather?
- How much can the participants be expected to contribute to the costs of the field day?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
6.5 Research
F Adult Education
Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

118 Field Days

Volume 2:

299 E8: Programming field days

Demonstrations

Purpose Demonstrations can illustrate and explain a new production method, a new tool or can show results.

Principles

· Rehearse the demonstration first.

· The participants should be invited to practice what is demonstrated (i.e. learning-by-doing).


FIGURE

Question List

- Who will take part in the demonstration?

- How can demonstrations be made accessible for women farmers?

- What is the wider context of the demonstration?

- What are the expected learning effects of the demonstration?

- What is the most appropriate form of demonstration for this?

- How should the demonstration be rehearsed first?

- Who helps decide the content of the demonstration?

- How will the demonstration be divided into a sequence of activities?

- Who will do the demonstrating?

- What preparation does the extension worker need in order to master the content of the demonstration?

- How many participants are expected?

- What demonstration and practice material is needed for practical teaching?

- How much time should be allowed for the practical exercises?

- Are the conditions of the site adequate to ensure a successful demonstration?

- What arrangements must be made with the farmer before using his/her land as a demonstration site (payment, rental of draft animals, access for outside visitors)?

- What transport problems might the participants have?

- What contribution can the participants be expected to make to the costs of the demonstration?

- How will it be checked whether the message provided by the demonstration has been understood?

- What alternative programme is planned in case of bad weather?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
6.5 Research
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

114 Demonstration

Volume 2:

177 C5: Experience of technical demonstrations
295 E7: Demonstrating the use of portable sprays
395 G6: The time needed for a demonstration

Field Trips / Excursions

Note Field trips and excursions provide opportunities for the participants to see production methods and conditions on other farms, in other regions or of former times.

Principles Let farmers meet farmers. Bring local innovators into contact with each other.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who will take part in the field trip?

- Who is invited and how many participants are expected?

- What should be done to allow women to participate in the field trip?

- What is the learning objective of the field trip?

- What is the link between the field trip and other extension work going on?

- What information during the field trip is particularly important and who points it out?

- How can the participants make use of the experience of the field trip (opportunity for discussion, follow-up)?

- What additional teaching aids are required?

- How can the teaching effect of the field trip be assessed afterwards?

- How can the experience of the participants be communicated to those who remained at home?

- Whose permission must be obtained for the visit?

- What transport is required?

- How much can the participants be expected to contribute towards the costs of the field trip?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
3.2 Production Techniques
3.3 Rural Engineering/Farm Mechanization
6.5 Research
6.6 Other Extension Services
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

90 The diffusion of innovations
118 Field days

Volume 2:

299 E8: Programming field days

Courses

Note Courses can provide basic knowledge on specific topics. They can improve abilities and skills and they are suitable for exchanges of ideas and experience.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who suggested this course?
- Why would a course be better than a demonstration, a field day or an excursion?
- To whom is the course offered and who can make use of the offer?
- How many participants are expected or allowed entry?
- What previous training do the participants need to have?
- What is the main incentive for participants to attend the course?
- How must the course be offered and organized to let women participate in it?
- How can the participants contribute their own experience and discuss their own problems?
- What does the course aim to teach?
- What do the participants want to learn?
- How can it be checked whether those two (teaching and learning) objectives coincide?
- What has been the experience with similar courses?
- Who decides the content, the timing and the form of the course? On the basis of what criteria?
- Who gives the course?
- What written information and course materials need to be given the participants?
- How do the participants' interests match with how the teacher sees them?
- What social/economic impact does the course have on the students?
- How can it be checked whether the teaching aim has been achieved?
- How sensible is it to let participants help to decide the content or the form of the course?
- What kind of certificate should be given at the end of the course?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
2.6 Staff Management
1.5 Research
6.6 Other Extension Services
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes
121 Extension work in training centers

Volume 2:

311 E12: Evaluating training events
403 G9 - G11: Teaching aids

Theatre / Storytelling / Songs

Notes

· Theatre and stories told in public are very popular and common in many cultures.
· Irony is not understood everywhere; different cultures have very different senses of humour

Principles

· Theatre or storytelling as part of an extension event should not last more than half an hour.
· Everything should be based on local forms and known characters.


FIGURE

Question List

- For which occasions is theatre traditionally performed?

- Who would enjoy seeing a play?

- Who would be prepared to act in a play?

- Who would be able to write a play for the specific extension situation?

- How can the extension workers make sure that the message (the teaching points) has been correctly understood and interpreted by the actors?

- What forms of acting are well-known (irony, absurdity, exaggeration ...)? To whom are these forms familiar?

- When can a play be performed?

- What context is suitable for this?

- Who is a traditional storyteller?

- What are his/her stories about?

- How can a teaching message be built into the existing stories?

- What is the significance of songs in the local culture?

- Who sings these songs? On what occasions?

- To which best-known tunes could extension messages be sung?

- What experience has been obtained with this technique?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

145 Methods of live presentation

Volume 2:

241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help
"GRAAP"
255 D9: Festivities

Farmers' Meetings / Information Days

Notes More people attend a farmers' meeting than a group meeting or a course. Information transfer and decision-making are the most common activities in farmers' meetings.

Principles

· Choose relevant subjects to discuss
· Invite the people well ahead of time
· Tell the invited people about the topics before the meeting
· Prepare the site for the meeting
· Prepare written information for all the participants


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the purpose of the meeting/information day?

- Who will invite people to the meeting?

- Who is responsible for the choice and arrangement of the meeting place?

- How will the participants reach the meeting place?

- Which is the best day for meetings?

- Who has a special interest in the meeting?

- How can it be guaranteed that everyone interested has been contacted? (Special occasions for women and young people.)

- What do the participants expect of the meeting?

- What disputes are likely to happen?

- Who will facilitate the meeting?

- What is the agenda of the meeting?

- What details are particularly important to include in the meeting?

- What decisions must be taken during the meeting?

- How are decisions traditionally taken within the target group?

- What role do the traditional opinion-makers play?

- What guarantee is there that decisions taken by the participants will also be implemented?

- Who is responsible for keeping the minutes of the meeting?

- How can the results of the meeting be followed up?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes

Volume 2:

255 D9: Festivities
325 E15: How to prepare and deliver a speech
373 F11: Checklist for preparing and running a
meeting

Radio Broadcasts

Note

Radio broadcasts allow information to be spread rapidly among the population.

Principles

· Only very up-to-date news is suitable The first ten seconds of the broadcast will catch or lose the attention of the listener

· Speaking freely is more effective than reading a text

· The main points must be repeated several times


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the opportunities for broadcasting?

- Which target groups should the broadcast reach?

- How many people of the target group listen to the radio?

- What news should be broadcast?

- What extension topic is suitable for broadcast by radio?

- Who has enough knowledge to prepare the broadcast?

- What is the best form of the broadcast (a short programme, a long feature, or a series of broadcasts)?

- How can it be checked whether the news reaches its destination?

- How will enquiries from the audience be dealt with?

- How can the listeners report their reactions to the broadcasts?

- Are the extension workers able to provide additional services? What further programmes are planned?

Related Keywords

B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes
137 Radio broadcasts

Volume 2:

325 E15: How to prepare and deliver a speech
377 F12: Checklist for using media

Agricultural Fairs

Note New ideas, tools, equipment, and machines can be shown to the public at agricultural fairs.

Principles

· The fair should take place after the harvest
· A small amount of information should be presented impressively


FIGURE

Question List

- What exhibitions and fairs are traditionally held?

- With what traditional festival could the fair be combined?

- Who can organize an agricultural fair?

- Who will invite people to the fair?

- How will the fair be advertised?

- What other extension services could co-operate (health service, forestry department, home economics, arts and crafts)?

- What topics should be dealt with at the fair?

- How should topics be presented (demonstration, exhibition, audiovisual show, film, poster, competitions)?

- Who can participate in the exhibition and the competitions?

- Who should be on the jury? Who instructs the jury?

- On what criteria should the prizes be awarded?

- What kinds of prizes encourage the winners without creating bad feelings among the losers?

- Who will award the prizes?

- What should be handed out to the public and in what quantity (brochures, leaflets)?

- How will the extension workers need to be prepared for the fair?

- What additional requests can be expected?

Related Keywords

6.5 Research
B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

127 Agricultural shows

Volume 2:

255 D9: Festivities and agricultual exhibition
305 E10: Local agricultural exhibition

Campaigns

Note During a campaign the use of a wide variety of communication methods on a single topic is designed to achieve an efficient transfer of information on, e.g. vaccination, afforestation etc..

Principles

· Announce the campaign well in advance
· Plan and prepare for the campaign carefully
· Use campaigns for simple topics only
· Everybody involved in the campaign must be well co-ordinated


FIGURE

Question List

- What message should the campaign convey?

- What level of coverage is desired (regional - national)?

- How does the campaign fit into the annual programme of extension work?

- How urgent is the campaign?

- Who is demanding / Supporting / challenging it?

- What institutions are going to take part in it?

- What does the extension service expect from it?

- How can the campaign tasks be divided?

- How many staff will be required?

- What material will be necessary? How much?

- Who will take part in planning the campaign? And in the running it?

- What is the aim of the campaign (sensitization, warning, instructing, encouraging, educating)?

- What are the advantages of having a central campaign team? What are the advantages of a mobile campaigning team?

- How long is the campaign going to last? How many repeats are planned of the same campaign?

- What methods of communication are most suitable?

- How can the campaign be made more popular (competitions, shows, sports events, accompanying popular festivals)?

- What does the population already know about the campaign topic?

- How can questions which the campaign raises be answered?

- What accompanying measures and additional services need to be performed by the extension service?

- How can the success of the campaign be assessed? What criteria will be useful in this assessment?

Related Keywords

B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1: 124 Campaigns Volume 2: 373 F11: Checklist for preparing and running a meeting

Competitions

Note

Competitions can be very effective as an additional incentive to large-scale extension work.

Principles: The rules of the competition must be clear and easily understandable

· The prizes should be modest
· The jury should include both local people and outsiders


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the benefits of holding an agricultural competition?

- What should the competition achieve or promote?

- What extension subject can be incorporated into a competition?

- Who can take part in the competition (small holders, large-scale farmers, women farmers, young people; single persons, families or groups of persons)?

- What incentives will there be for participation?

- What criteria will be used to judge the performances?

- Who should be on the jury? Who will instruct the jury?

- What would be suitable prizes? (They should encourage the winners but avoid envy and frustration among the losers.)

- What additional extension methods could supplement the competition?

Related Keywords

1.3 Motivation
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

209 D5: The role of stimulation in extension

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