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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT; 1994; 298 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentA few words on this English edition:
View the documentImpressum
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction to the Guidelines
View the documentCommon Difficulties
close this folderQuestions List
View the document1 EXTENSION WORKER
View the document2 EXTENSION PLANNING
View the document3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER
View the document4 EXTENSION METHODS
View the document5 EXTENSION ACCESSORIES
View the document6 EXTENSION CONTEXT
Open this folder and view contentsTheory Chapters
 

6 EXTENSION CONTEXT


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Agricultural Policy

Note The agricultural policy sets the conditions for extension work and also influences its role.

Principle Extension work must involve being aware of and influencing the agricultural policies behind it.


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Question List

- Which target groups benefit from the current governmental policy?

- How is land ownership and land use legally controlled?

- What is being planned to provide marginalized groups with access to land ownership and production-inputs?

- What status does agriculture enjoy in politics?

- What influence do the farmers have on government policy?

- What is the influence of trade policy on agriculture (e.g. import of foodstuffs, export production)?

- What kind of supervision checks that agricultural policies are being complied with?

- How does agricultural policy affect extension (production regulations etc.)?

- What decisions can be taken at regional, district or municipal level?

- Who co-ordinates the extension service? At what level?

- Where do bottlenecks occur due to agricultural policy (training, transport system, price policy, research)?

- How necessary is it to cooperate with the government? What opportunities would this cooperation provide?

- Where is there tension between the political hierarchy and the extension structure?

- What would be the advantages and disadvantages of integrating the project into the national administrative structure?

- What are the possibilities of transferring well-tried extension ideas to partner organizations?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
2.3 Identification of Objectives

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

24 Rural poverty

Volume 2:

Price Policy / Subsidies

Notes

· Price policy and subsidies determine agricultural production
· Fixed prices prevent a changing market from influencing production levels.


FIGURE

Question List

- For what products are there price guarantees?
- What production incentives exist?
- What effect do these have?
- What means of production are subsidized?
- Who has access to subsidies?
- Why are these subsidies granted? By whom?
- What effect do subsidies have?
- Who decides the distribution of subsidies?
- Who profits most from subsidies?- To whom are subsidies given (groups/individuals)?

- How much subsidizing makes sense?
- How long can subsidies be paid?
- What must be expected when subsidies are withdrawn?
- What long-term effect must be expected from giving subsidies?
- What effect will there be if the extension service participates actively in providing subsidies?
- What export taxes are imposed?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.3 Agricultural Credit
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

19 A2: Improvement of farming systems
209 DS: The role of stimulation in extension

Agricultural Credit

Definition A distinction must be made between long-term credit linked with mortgages and short-term (consumer) credit.

Principles

· The cost of obtaining credit (interest, commissions) must be less than the extra profits achieved because of the loan

· Credit should be given based on prior saving: - own savings = hot money - outside capital = cold money; The lower the temperature of the money, the lower the commitment to repay.


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Question List

- What is the traditional credit system (neighborhood help, local savings funds, banks, money lenders)?
- What has been the experience with the traditional credit system (positive, negative)?
- Who has access to credit?
- What are the conditions for obtaining credit (interest, repayment, guarantees)?
- Who are the lenders?
- What official credit institutions exist?
- How does the extension service co-operate with these organizations?

- How does the target group take part in planning the credit programme?
- What credit volume is available and how is it fed?
- Who decides whether a credit is granted or not?
- What happens to people who are slow to repay?
- What are the extension workers' duties in the credit programme?

- What type of liability exists (group - individual)?
- What is the procedure in the event of crop failure?
- How can indebtedness of the borrower be avoided?

Related Keywords

3.4 Post-Harvest Storage/Processing/Marketing
3.5 Farm Management/Financing/Credit
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.4 Supply an Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

188 Credit

Volume 2:

85 B2: Extension and credit (Kenya)
89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)

Supply and Marketing Services

Principles

· Many extension services make sense only if the farmers have access to the necessary production inputs.

· Avoid project-linked supply and marketing services.


FIGURE

Question List

- What supply and marketing services do the farmers need?

- Where are there bottlenecks and gaps in supply and marketing?

- How have supply and marketing been organized up till now?

- What relationship exists between merchants and farmers?

- What services do the traditional merchants provide, and what services do they not offer?

- Who could provide the supply and marketing services which are currently lacking?

- What preparation would this require?

- How can the target group participate in these preparations?

- How can the extension service also participate in this?

- What inputs should/must be provided by the extension service itself?

- How should extension workers participate in selling inputs and in marketing products? What would happen if they did get involved with these services?

- To what extent should extension workers' vehicles be used for transporting inputs and products?

- What price guarantees exist in the supply and marketing services?

- What effect do price guarantees have?

Related Keywords

3.4 Post-Harvest Storage/Processing/Marketing
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

187 Provision of production means
190 Marketing

Volume 2:

51 A8: "CFSME" Extension system
303 E9: Extension work at markets

Research

Note "Research" can range from basic agricultural research right through to farming systems research programmes. The most valuable partners for extension are those researchers ... whose priorities relate to practical needs, ... who are ready to discuss and co-operate.

Question: What do researchers expect from extension?


FIGURE

Question List

- How and by whom is the research topic defined?

- How do the extension service and the farmers participate in this decision?

- Which farmers would benefit from research into this topic?

- How much contact is there between research and extension?

- How are the knowledge and questions of the rural people integrated into the research work? What role does extension play in this context?

- In what form do the results of research reach the extension service?

- Who is responsible for providing this information?

- Which of the research centre's publications are accessible for the extension workers?

- How are the results of research recorded and processed?

- What duties does the extension service perform during field trials?

- What production conditions exist on the pilot farm/research unit? What conditions prevail on the farms of the target group? How can the results be compared/transferred?

- What criteria apply for the choice of a pilot farm?

- In what way is the research work inadequate or doing research in the wrong direction? How can these problems be overcome?

Related Keywords

5.1 Technical Leaflets/Brochures
5.6 Demonstration Plots/Pilot Farms
6.1 Agricultural Policy
D Functions of Extension
G Transmission of Information
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

185 Research

Volume 2:

67 A10: Farming Systems Research

Other Extension Services

Principles Co-ordinate your own extension work with extension services specialized in other fields.

· Avoid giving contradictory advice


FIGURE

Question List

- What other extension services are active in the region? In what special topics?
- What lessons can be learnt from their work?
- What do the farmers think about the different extension services?
- What do the farmers expect from the extension services?
- How are the tasks of each of the extension services defined? How can they complement each other?
- What advantages do the farmers see in each of the different extension services?
- How is extension work co-ordinated in the region?
- Who is responsible for co-ordinating extension activities?
- Who is represented in this co-ordination?
- How can the farmers voice their requests about co-operation between the different extension services?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
4.11 Campaigns
6.1 Agricultural Policy

I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

130 Extension in rural schools

Volume 2

47 A7: Decentralized development work
(Bolivia)

Agricultural Training

Note

· Formal agricultural training is offered at several levels, from basic courses in agriculture to studies at university level.

· Where farming is not highly commercialized, informal agricultural training is very important.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the opportunities for obtaining basic agricultural training? Where?
- At what level and in what special subjects is basic training available?
- What are the conditions for admission? To whom is this training available?
- What are the opportunities of getting a scholarship? What conditions are linked to it?
- Where can student trainees be placed?
- What expectations do the students have for future employment?
- How does the number of trainees match the need for trained workers?
- What are the opportunities for further training? How should/must basic training be complemented?
- How do the agricultural schools and the extension service co-operate?
- How is the subject of extension taught in schools?
- How can an extension organization co-operate in the training of agricultural staff?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
2.6 Staff Management
4.6 Courses
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.6 Other Extension Services
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

130 Extension in rural schools
223 Basic and advanced training of advisers

Volume 2:

43 A6: Farmer training centers (Kenya, Senegal)
A Board Game for Extension Workers (for 2 - 6 players)

Rules of the Game

· You will need a dice (sides marked 1- 6) and a pebble or bean of a different colour for each player.

· Throw the dice and move the pebble the number of squares indicated by the dice. If you land on a numbered square, look the number up on the list below to discover what difficulties or successes appear in your extension work and what effect this has on your game.

· The first to "get home" wins the game. While the others are getting "home", the winner can think about the insights s/he has gained.

1 The government has stopped subsidizing fertilizer. Since then, the project's compost and barnyard manure programme has become very popular among the farmers.

-> Advance 3 squares

2 The project has set up a cheese dairy. The farmers produce large quantities of milk from which cheese is made. However, the local population doesn't buy the cheese because it is too expensive

-> Miss 2 throws in order to develop new marketing outlets or devise a new strategy

3 Your information campaign has resulted in large parts of the population becoming members of savings and credit cooperatives they have already succeeded in raising the starting capital. You are made an honorary member of the cooperative

-> Continue playing normally

4 The erosion control measures of the extension service in the neighboring area have proved successful. You have been cooperating closely with this extension service for 3 months. This cooperation was a good move.

-> You got an extra throw

5 The extension workers with little basic training were replaced a year ago by qualified agronomists. since all of these agronomists choose from the towns or from other regions, they are not familiar with the local conditions.

-> Choose:

· Miss two throws and give the old extension workers specialized technology

· Miss 5 turns end give the new egronooms time to get familiar with their new surroundings

-> Take your shoes of end 90 on playing barefoot

6 At the last formers meeting several farmers complained that the agricultural adviser, the animal husbandry adviser and the home economics adviser have all given contradictory advice.

-> Miss 2 turns and prepare e co-ordination meeting

7 The project's extension method has been declared the "national extension method".

-> Each player pets you on the back twice, but work goes on

-> You get an extra throw

8 The project has encouraged the cultivation of soya. However, during this year's harvest a large delivery of surplus soya reaches the country from the USA. The market price drops by half. This costs the project its credibility among the population.

-> Miss 2 turns and discuss with the players on your let and right how the effects of agricultural policies can be predicted better

9 The seed-supply-to-farmers campaign that was to take place only once is now operating for the third season and occupying a third of the extension workers.

-> Miss 2 turns end consider how the campaign could continue independent of the extension service

10 During an interview you spoke disparagingly about the country's agricultural policy. This was published in today's newspaper.

-> Put your pebble on 'Start"; you have two rounds' time to get your luggage reedy

11 Thanks to co-operation with the bean research center the project has been able to propose a new kind of bean to farming families. The farmers include this new variety in their existing lot of 20 varieties and obtain good results with it.

-> You get en extra throw

12 The previous extension worker in your area distributed agricultural credit with a generous hand and so was very popular with the farmers. Repayment of the credit is very slow and headquarters now demands at you play debt collector.

-> Miss 3 turns and collect $5. from each player

13 Working with the agricultural school you have developed a new idea for the training of extension workers this idea is also very popular with extension workers.

-> Each player gives you a flower

14 You forgot to invite representatives of the research center to the extension party three months ago. since then the researchers have not been putting much effort into your joint projects.

-> Buy the players a bottle off wine to get beck into the research workers' good books


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