L Goal Oriented Project Planning
· planning is done logically and completely documented
A. Description of the GOPP Steps
Planning is done together with the people involved, at least with those who are responsible for implementing the programme being planned. The planning of the programme thus becomes transparent. This cooperation allows the participants to influence the programme at the planning stage. It helps them to understand what is behind the planning and makes it easier for them to support the programme.
GOPP takes place in several steps
1. Identify the favourable pre-conditions and assess any previous work done in the area. Favourable pre-conditions exist without any effort on anyone's part. They can be ignored, maintained or further developed. Previous work done can include the results from earlier phases of the project, on which further planning can be based.
2. Participation analysis - the participants and the target groups are analyzed.
All the interested groups, institutions and projects in the region that might affect or be affected by the problems are identified, listed, described, analyzed and assessed. The planning team then discusses whose interests and whose views of the problems will determine the planning analysis.
3. Problem analysis - the core problem is defined.
Each member of the planning team describes what s/he considers to be the core problem. These ideas are then briefly explained and discussed. If no agreement is reached, decision-making aids such as brainstorming, or role-playing may be used. A majority decision by formal voting should be avoided wherever possible.
4. The causes and effects of the core problem are analyzed and laid out in a way that show the multi-level causal links and branches (problem tree).
The problem analysis is continued until the planning team is convinced that the essential information has been used to build up a causal network explaining the main cause and-effect relationships of the problem situation.
5. Objectives analysis - the hierarchy of problems is translated into a hierarchy of objectives and these objectives are then analysed (objectives tree).
All the problems are rephrased as objectives from top to bottom. The wording of the problem formulation, a negative state, is transformed into a positive, forward looking state. Nonsensical statements are changed to make sense. Not every cause-effect relationship can be automatically translated into a means-end relationship.
6. Potential alternative solutions for the problem are identified.
The assessment and choice of alternatives can take place:
· on the basis of expert opinion and feasability studies or cost-benefit analyses
7. Project planning matrix (PPM)
The purpose of the project describes the intended impact or the expected benefits of the project as a precisely stated future condition. Than the activities and the as sumptions required to ensure the intended results are defined.
8. The most important assumptions are determined.
The desired results of the project activities are checked to see if they depend on events outside the scope of the project. Assumptions which, while important for the success of the project, are unlikely to occur count as "killer" assumptions and must not be included in the planning. If killer assumptions exist, planning must be changed or the project must be abandoned.
9. Indicators are chosen.
The objective must be described in a way which permits measurement of how much has been achieved at different points in time. The prescribed measuring process must be accurate enough to make the indicators objectively verifiable.
10. Sources of this verification are identified.
For each indicator the information sources which will facilitate its verification need to be identified. The activities of collecting, processing and storing information in the project itself must be included in the project planning matrix.
11. The relevance and risks of the assumptions are analyzed.
Assumptions which are essential prerequisites for the success of the project need to be identified and assessed with respect of the likelihood of their occurrence.
12. It must be checked whether the project management can guarantee the results.
13. For each individual activity the means and the costs need to be evaluated and defined.
An introduction to the GOPP method can be obtained from GTZ,
The publication is available in German, French, English, Spanish and Portuguese.
Written and compiled by: Tonino Zellweger
Remarks and Tips Concerning GOPP
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