F Adult Education
1. Some Thoughts About Education
Part of the nature of education is that it is a continuous process. People learn from their environment and their relationships and gain habits, knowledge and values. We distinguish between developing the personality ("internal" education or education of consciousness) and gaining knowledge and skills ("external" education or action oriented education). Although these two types of education cannot be kept apart, we shall be referring to them in this section.
It is also part of the nature of education that it aims to achieve a given objective and is therefore based on a certain ideology, a specific attitude. In other words, adult education - just like any other activity, - adopts either an approving and supporting attitude or a disapproving and negative one to the value systems operating.
The most important thing is that adult educators are fully aware of their own value systems. This allows them to recognize and appreciate other attitudes in the local people involved.
2. A Special Feature of Adult Education
Social science does not see the differences in learning behavior of children and adults as inborn characteristics but rather as different development phases of the person and their circumstances (Doring, K.W.; 1938: p. 118 ff.).
Characteristics of the learning adult:
The learning adult has the following demands:
· An adult wants to be free to choose the educational objective or to participate in establishing it
The adult is the subject and not the object of adult education
Adult education can take various forms, from clearly-structured groups (adult evening classes, seminars, courses) and media-linked forms (radio, TV, newspapers) through to informal opportunities of learning (theatre, discussion groups, panel discussions). Here we shall be dealing only with adult education in structured groups. To begin with, let us take a look at those participating in adult education:
3. Aims of Adult Education
Internal adult education aims to develop the personality (creating awareness) promotes the intellectual and spiritual development of the person.
External adult education (action oriented) gives people new insights and skills, enabling them to take part in new forms of activity.
4. Spheres of Adult Education
Between creating awareness and action-oriented education, adult education may have a variety of objectives.
Awareness Creating ("internal" education)
· Development of the personality
5. Problem-Solvin Assistance in Adult Education
Adult education as assistance to problem-solving aims to support the participating adults
- in problem analysis
6. Motivation in Adult Education
What is it that motivates adults to continue their education?
Motivation in adults comes on the one hand from their own initiative but it can also be encouraged by those organizing adult education, by
· Appealing to the adult's curiosity . Awakening their interest
7. The Principles for Adult Education
8. Four Stens when Planninng Educational Events
Doring, K.W.; 1983: Lehren in der Erwachsenenbildung. Beltz, Weinheim/Basel.
Mager, R.F.; 1977: Motivation und Lernerfolg. Beltz Bibliothek 15, Weinheim/Basel.
Schweizerische Vereinigung fur Erwachsenenbildung; 1977 Das Gruppengesprach. Zurich und Luzern.
Freire P.; 1973: Padagogik der Unterdruckten. Rororo 6830, Hamburg.
Illich, I.; 1973: Entschulung der Gesellschaft. Rororo 6828, Hamburg.
Hope, A. and Timmel, S.; 1985: Training for Transformation. Mambo Press, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
GRAAP; 1984: Pour une pedagogic de l'autopromotion. Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
Written and compiled by: Ernst Bolliger, Tonino Zellweger
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