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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
close this folderPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
View the documentPhase V Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Introduction to agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 2. Tour of solar dryers
View the documentSession 3. Solar agricultural dryer design procedures and rules of thumb
View the documentSession 4. Two-hour dryer construction
View the documentSession 5. Review of existing solar dryer plans
View the documentSession 6. Smoke testing solar dryers
View the documentSession 7. Introducing new technologies: solar dryers
View the documentSession 8. Design of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 9. Site selection and preparation
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 11. Issues and methods in development and diffusion of appropriate technology
View the documentSession 12. Natural cooling
View the documentSession 13. Approaches to health systems
View the documentSession 14. Nutritional gardening
View the documentSession 15. Practical drying tips
View the documentSession 16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
View the documentSession 17. Dryer assessment and modification
View the documentSession 18. Introduction to cost benefit analysis (cba)
View the documentSession 19. Presentation of solar dryers
View the documentSession 20. Introduction to the final phase of the training program
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices
 

Session 11. Issues and methods in development and diffusion of appropriate technology

Total time:

4 hours (approximate)

Objectives:

* To compare and discuss general appropriate technology research and development policies

 

* To identify and discuss specific techniques and potential difficulties related to the diffusion of technology in developing countries

Resources:

Jequier, Appropriate Technology: Problems and Promises, pp. 69-80

Materials:

Newsprint and felt-tip pens

Trainer Notes

This session will require considerable preparation in the following three major areas:

* Resource Material - Obtain a copy of the Jequier book for each participant (see bibliography). If this is not possible, a handout should be prepared which includes a summary of the essential points brought out in Chapter 6 of the Jequier book.

* Volunteer Participant/Facilitator - Beginning at Step 5, this session provides an excellent opportunity for a participant to practice facilitation skills. If you ask one of the participants to facilitate, it will be necessary to provide a thorough overview of the session in advance. Also, be certain to allow time at the end of the session to give feedback on the facilitation skills.

* Panel Discussion - Steps 5 through 9 of this session call for the participation of 3 to S guest panelists. Ideally, these panelists should be currently involved in development work and should represent a variety of perspectives (i.e., agency level work, community level work, work with women, work with men, etc.). You will need to select, invite and orient these panelists well in advance of the date of the session.

Step 1. (10 minutes)
Present a brief introductory overview of session objectives and procedures.

Step 2. (15 minutes)
Distribute the resource book (Jequier, Appropriate Technology: Problems and Promises) and ask participants to read Chapter 6, pp. 69-80.

Step 3. (15 minutes)
Discuss the reading material, focusing on the concepts of "centralization" and "decentralization" of the diffusion of appropriate technology.

Trainer Notes

Some suggested points to emphasize during this discussion are:

* The present system of research and development is geographically and administratively centralized in many countries.

* There is a need for local control (decentralization) in order to provide for community-based research and development of appropriate technology.

* Central governments need to support technological innovation on a national level to promote wide and active participation of all sectors of the population.

* Decentralization fosters local initiative and self-reliance.

Step 4. (20 minutes)
Have the participants generate a list of 5 or 6 general questions that will be used to help focus the panel discussion. Post the list on newsprint.

Trainer Notes

Emphasize the importance of keeping these questions as general as possible in order to allow spontaneity of the panel discussion. Some suggested questions include:

* What efforts are being made to decentralize technological research and development in your country?

* Are there organizations in your country that could provide support and/or assistance to appropriate technology volunteers?

* What are some effective techniques for facilitating community-based technological development?

* What are some effective ways of supporting existing indigenous technological development?

* What are some difficulties which an appropriate technology volunteer may encounter when dealing with local values, beliefs and organizational policies?

Step 5. (15 minutes)
Announce a 15-minute break and explain that the panel discussion will begin immediately afterward.

Trainer Notes

During this break, arrange the room so that the panelists will be seated where they can see the posted discussion questions.

If a participant has volunteered to facilitate the panel discussion, he/she should assume the role at this time and greet the arriving panelists, providing them with a brief summary of the proposed discussion procedures.

Step 6. (10 minutes)
Reconvene the group and introduce each of the panel members.

Step 7 (15-25 minutes)
Ask each of the panelists to speak for approximately five minutes regarding their roles and duties as development workers.

Step 8. (60 minutes)
Open the panel to questions from the audience.

Trainer Notes

Try to keep the questions centered around the general questions developed in Step 4.

Step 9. (40 minutes)
Thank the panelists for their participation and explain that following a 40-minute break, the participants will reconvene in order to summarize the session's activities.

Trainer Notes

During this break, you may find that participants want to speak individually and informally with certain panelists. This informal dialogue should be encouraged since it can provide an opportunity for additional questions and clarification.

If this informal dialogue is animated and flowing well, you may omit Step 10.

Step 10. (30 minutes)
Conclude the session by returning to the questions developed in Step 4 and asking participants to discuss any specific approaches provided by the panelists.

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