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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
close this folderPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
View the documentPhase V Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Introduction to agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 2. Tour of solar dryers
View the documentSession 3. Solar agricultural dryer design procedures and rules of thumb
View the documentSession 4. Two-hour dryer construction
View the documentSession 5. Review of existing solar dryer plans
View the documentSession 6. Smoke testing solar dryers
View the documentSession 7. Introducing new technologies: solar dryers
View the documentSession 8. Design of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 9. Site selection and preparation
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 11. Issues and methods in development and diffusion of appropriate technology
View the documentSession 12. Natural cooling
View the documentSession 13. Approaches to health systems
View the documentSession 14. Nutritional gardening
View the documentSession 15. Practical drying tips
View the documentSession 16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
View the documentSession 17. Dryer assessment and modification
View the documentSession 18. Introduction to cost benefit analysis (cba)
View the documentSession 19. Presentation of solar dryers
View the documentSession 20. Introduction to the final phase of the training program
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

Session 12. Natural cooling

Total time:

2 hours


* To discuss the relationship between heat transfer and natural cooling principles


* To identify and describe various natural cooling techniques and devices


* To discuss the different types of natural cooling techniques used in indigenous architecture throughout the world


* Leckie, Other Homes and Garbage


* Wright, Natural Solar Architecture


* Bainbridge, Natural Cooling Methods in California


* Attachment V-12 "Natural Cooling Scenarios"


Chalkboard and/or newsprint and felt-tip pens


Step 1. (5 minutes)
Present the objectives and describe the session activities.

Step 2. (40 minutes)
Draw the natural cooling matrix (See below) on the chalkboard and have the participants fill it in. Encourage discussion, comments and questions.

Trainer Notes

The natural cooling matrix includes the three types of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation - See Phase III: Session 16/Heat Transfer) and the two ways a structure (house, building, etc.) can remain cool by "shielding" itself from any one of these types of heat transfer and/or by "shedding" heat in one of the three ways listed:










Some examples are:

* Conduction shield: insulation
Conduction shed: living underground

* Convection shield: window or shutter
Convection shed: chimney effect

* Radiation shield: shading device
Radiation shed cooling pond

Keep the examples related to housing or other building design.

Step 3. (10 minutes)
Have the participants describe and discuss other natural cooling devices they may know about.

Trainer Notes

These might include: natural refrigerators, cooling ponds, evaporative coolers, etc.

Step 4. (25 minutes)
Have the participants form four small groups. Distribute one scenario from Attachment V-4-A to each one of the groups and give them 25 minutes to develop a sketch or drawing of the natural cooling devices and techniques used.

Step 5. (25 minutes)
Reconvene the large group and have a representative from each small group describe the natural cooling devices and techniques that they developed.

Step 6. (15 minutes)
Facilitate a discussion of the application of natural cooling designs in-country.

Trainer Notes

Focus the discussion by asking:

* Which of the devices and techniques described in your "scenario sketches" might be applicable in your country of assignment?

* Which would not? Why?

* What cultural factors, beliefs or values might enhance or impede their applicability?


1. Your Club Med Cruise is shipwrecked. You swim ashore and plan to stay for awhile. The island to which you swim is uninhabited, 35° C (95° F) and 90% humidity with biting bugs. Trade winds come from the west every afternoon. What type of shelter would you build to stay as cool as possible?

2. You and some friends want to get away from it all. You parachute from a commercial jet into an area that you think will be nice. However, it turns out to be a hot, dry desert. Hot days (50°C - 120°F) with cool nights (10°C - 50°F). The ground is a hard sandstone material with a deep gorge nearby. There's water in the gorse but not much wind. You can dig into the sandstone fairly easily. What would be your shelter?

3. Your car runs out of gas on a remote road in the Hindu Kush mountains. You and your friendly bus-mates decide to set up a home. You are situated on a rocky south-facing slope, with some trees. The winds blow strongly every afternoon. It's about 50°C (120°F) with no rain expected for months. The nights are cold (10°C - 50°F) and there's lot; of sun. What type of house would you decide upon?

4. You and your friends end up in the middle of a jungle, 30°C (85°F) and 85% humidity. The wind doesn't blow very often. You're south of the equator, it's very shady and you decide to stay. What type of house would your group decide upon for maximum comfort?

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