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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
close this folderPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
View the documentPhase II Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Environmental health and sanitation
View the documentSession 2. Traditional methods of cooking: an introduction to cookstove technologies
View the documentSession 3. Fuel-saying cookstoves: gathering information
View the documentSession 4. Cookstove design and innovations
View the documentSession 5. Thinking in pictures: introduction to design drawing
View the documentSession 6. Introduction to independent study
View the documentSession 7. Cookstove operation function and design principles
View the documentSession 8. Understanding the cookstove design process and soil mixes
View the documentSession 9. Insolation meter construction
View the documentSession 10. Cookstove construction
View the documentSession 11. Nature of volunteerism: expectations beyond training
View the documentSession 12. Food issues
View the documentSession 13. The role of the volunteer in development: definition of appropriate technology
View the documentSession 14. Stove promotion and dissemination
View the documentSession 15. Explaining completed cookstoves
View the documentSession 16. Evaluating cookstove efficiency
View the documentSession 17. Diagnosing and repairing malfunctioning cookstoves
View the documentSession 18. Other responses to fuel scarcity
View the documentSession 19. Charcoal production and stoves
View the documentSession 20. Custom and food
View the documentSession 21. Design and construction of the second stove part one: stove base
View the documentSession 22. Alternative cookstoves: presentations
View the documentSession 23. Basic nutrition
View the documentSession 24. Cookstove operation
View the documentSession 25. Cookstove development and innovation
View the documentSession 26. Cookstove information and resources/ evaluation of cookstove training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices
 

Session 23. Basic nutrition

Total time:

2 hours

Objectives:

* To discuss and examine basic nutritional needs
* To discuss and analyze personal eating habits
* To discuss methods for nutrition education

Resources:

* Jelliffe, Child Nutrition in Developing Countries, Chapter 2
* King, Nutrition in Developing Countries
* Werner, Where There Is No Doctor, pp. 107-130
* Attachment II-23-A, "Signs of Nutritional Status"
* Attachment II-23-B, "The Food Square"
* Attachment II-23-C, "Plant Protein Complimentarity"
* Attachment II-23-D, "Daily Dietary Guidelines"
* Attachment II-23-E, "Four Day Food Diary"
* Attachment II-23-F, "Nutrition Education Tools"

Materials:

Newsprint and felt-tip pens, "Favorite Food Lists" (developed by participants in Phase II: Session 20)

Trainer Notes

Copy Chapter 2, "The Human Diet," from Jelliffe's Child Nutrition in Developing Countries to distribute to participants as background reading material.

Procedures:

Step 1. (30 minutes)
Distribute the Jelliffe article, "The Human Diet,'' and Attachment II-23-A, "Signs of Nutritional Status," and allow time for people to read them.

Step 2. (10 minutes)
Distribute and review Attachments II-23-B, "The ood Square," and II-23-C, "Plant Protein Complimentarity."

Step 3. (15 minutes)
Have the participants form pairs. Using the lists developed in Session 20 of favorite foods, have them identify where the foods fit on the food square.

Step 4. (10 minutes)
Reconvene the participants and have them discuss their findings

Trainer Notes

The following questions will help focus the discussion:

* What nutrients appear most in your favorite foods? Least?
* Are your food preferences beneficial, harmless or harmful to your health?
* Have your food preferences changed in nutritional value since childhood?

Step 5. (10 minutes)
Distribute and review Attachment II-23-D, "Daily Dietary Guidelines."

Trainer Notes

Point out that these guidelines offer one simple approach to determine the quality of daily diet.

Step 6. (20 minutes)
Have the group form pairs to conduct 24-hour dietary recalls on one another.

Trainer Notes

Explain the recall practice as a way to spot-check the adequacy of the daily diet. The food square and daily dietary guidelines should be consulted to evaluate the day's diet.

Step 7. (15 minutes)
Review the session objectives and distribute Attachment II-23-E, "Four Day Food Diary," as an assignment.

Trainer Notes

Explain that the assignment should be done over a four-day period and should serve to familiarize participants with how well daily diets meet established dietary guidelines. Answer any questions about the activity. Collect the diaries when they are completed and be available to offer help whenever necessary.

Step 8. (15 minutes)
Have the group discuss some ideas on nutrition education and distribute Attachment II-23-F for review.

Trainer Notes

The following questions will stimulate discussion:

* What do you think motivates people to improve their diets?
* Have you learned anything in this session that might lead you to improve your diet?
* Do you think some of the suggested concepts and tools can be applied successfully in your work as Peace Corps Volunteers?
* How do you plan to learn about local community foods and diets?
* Can you begin to think of ways appropriate technologies and nutrition can be used together?

Then, cite Jelliffe, King and Werner and Bower in the bibliography as resources for nutrition education.

SIGNS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

 

GOOD

POOR

General appearance

Alert, responsive

Listless, apathetic

Hair

Shiny, lustrous, healthy scalp

Stringy, dull, brittle, dry, depigmented

Neck (gland)

No enlargement

Thyroid enlarged

Skin (face & neck)

Smooth, slightly moist, good color, reddish pink mucous membrane

Greasy, discolored, scaly

Eyes

Bright, clear, no fatigue

Dryness, signs of infection, increased vascularity, glassiness, thickened conjunctive

Lips

Good color, moist

Dry, scaly, swollen, angular lesions (stomatitis)

Tongue

Good pink color, surface papillae present, no lesions

Papillary atrophy, smooth appearance, swollen, red, beefy (glassitis)

Gums

Good pink color, no swelling or bleeding, firm

Marginal redness or swelling, receding, spongy

Teeth

Straight, no crowding, well-shaped jaw, clean, no discoloration

Unfilled caries, absent teeth, worn surfaces, mottled, malposition

Skin (general)

Smooth, slightly moist, good color

Rough, dry, scaly, pale, pigmented, irritated, petachia, bruises

Abdomen

Flat

Swollen

Legs, feet

No tenderness, weakness, or swelling, good color

Edema, tender calf, tingling, weakness

Skeleton

No malformations

Bowlegs, knock knees, chest deformity at diaphragm, beaded ribs, prominent scapulae

THE FOOD SQUARE

ENERGY FOODS

BODY BUILDING FOODS

Staple Foods

Protein Supplements

Examples:
Cereals and grains
(Wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, millet, etc.)
Starchy roots
(Cassava, potatoes, etc.)
Starchy fruits
(Banana, breadfruit, etc.)

Examples:
Legumes
(Beans, peas, groundnuts*, soyabeans*, etc.)
Nuts*
(Almonds, walnuts, cashews, hazel nuts, etc.)
Oil seeds*
(Sesame, sunflower, etc.)
Animal products
(Milk, meat, fish, eggs, insects, etc.)

Importance

Importance

All staple foods are cheap energy sources. Cereals are also cheap sources of protein, iron and the vitamin B-complex.

Combined with staples, these foods increase the quantity and improve the quality of the protein in the meal.
* Also valuable as an energy supplement, due to their high fat content.

PROTECTIVE FOODS

ENERGY STORAGE FOODS

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

Energy Supplements

Examples:
Vegetables
(Dark green leafy vegetables, kale, leek, carrots, turnips, tomatoes, peppers, etc.)
Fruits
(Mango, orange, papaya, etc.)

Examples:
Pure fats
(Oils, butter, ghee, lard, etc.)
Fat-rich foods
(Nuts, oil-seeds, bacon, fatty meat, etc.)
Pure carbohydrates
(Sugar, honey, jaggery, etc.)

Importance

Importance

Provide vitamins A and C to the diet. Dark green leafy vegetables are also excellent sources of iron and the vitamin B complex.

These foods are low-bulk concentrated energy sources. Fat contains twice as much energy as carbohydrate.


PLANT PROTEIN COMPLEMENTARITY

Adapted from Diet for a Small Planet, by Frances Moore Lappe, 1971, N. Y., Ballantine Books.

DAILY DIETARY GUIDELINES

Note:

These guidelines are not designed for pregnant or lactating women or young people under the age of four years. Check current resources.

All Plant Diet

1-1/4 serving legumes or 1/3 serving legumes + 2 servings soymilk
3-5 servings whole grains (2 grains + slices bread)
1 serving nuts and/or seeds (sesame for calcium)
4 servings vegetables (2 dark leafy green)
1-4 servings fruits (1 raw citrus)
1-2 tablespoons nutritional yeast (B12 + B vitamins)
5-30 minutes skin exposure to sunlight for Vitamin D
1+ tablespoon polyunsaturated vegetable oil (linoleic acid)

Plant and Dairy Diet

1 serving legumes
4 servings whole grains
1 serving nuts and/or seeds
3 servings vegetables (1+ dark leafy green)
1-4 servings fruits (1 raw citrus)
2 servings dairy (3+ for the young)
5-30 minutes skin exposure to sunlight for Vitamin D
1+ tablespoon polyunsaturated vegetable oil (linoleic acid)

Animal Meat/Dairy and Plant Diet

2+ servings lean meat, poultry or fish
4 servings grains
4 servings vegetables & fruits (2 dark green/1 raw citrus)
2-4 servings dairy (eggs, up to 4 per week)
5-30 minutes skin exposure to sunlight for Vitamin D

Key

1 serving = 1 cup; 100 grams; 8 ounces liquid; 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice or noodles; 1/2 cup raw or cooked vegetable; 1 slice bread; 1 potato or fruit; 4 T. peanut butter; 2 eggs; 2-3 ounces lean meat, fish or poultry; 2 ozs. of cheese; 4 ozs. of tofu.

Sources: Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council (Revised 1974); Laurel's Kitchen, Robertson, Flinders & Godfrey, 1976, Berkeley, Nilgiri Press; Nutrition and Physical Fitness, Bogert, Boggs & Calloway, 1973, Philadelphia, Saunders. 289

FOUR DAY FOOD DIARY

Keep a careful and accurate diary of the foods you eat over a four-day period. Organize the foods and their servings into categories (see below). Use the Food Square and the Daily Dietary Guidelines to organize your thinking about surveying your diet. Note the key on average servings for your entries.

Record the number of servings you have daily in each category:

Food

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

4-Day Total

Average

Legumes
Poultry
Fish
Meat

           

Grains

           

Dairy
Products

           

Vegetables (Color code: Dark, leafy greens and yellow/ orange)

           

Fruits

           

Nuts/Seeds

           

Miscellaneous

           

NUTRITION EDUCATION TOOLS


THREE-LEGEND EDUCATION


THREE ROCK FIRE


A BALANCED MEAL IS A MIXED ONE

Adapted from Werner and Bower, Helping Health Workers Learn, and King, Nutrition in Developing Countries.

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