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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
close this folderPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
View the documentPhase II Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Environmental health and sanitation
View the documentSession 2. Traditional methods of cooking: an introduction to cookstove technologies
View the documentSession 3. Fuel-saying cookstoves: gathering information
View the documentSession 4. Cookstove design and innovations
View the documentSession 5. Thinking in pictures: introduction to design drawing
View the documentSession 6. Introduction to independent study
View the documentSession 7. Cookstove operation function and design principles
View the documentSession 8. Understanding the cookstove design process and soil mixes
View the documentSession 9. Insolation meter construction
View the documentSession 10. Cookstove construction
View the documentSession 11. Nature of volunteerism: expectations beyond training
View the documentSession 12. Food issues
View the documentSession 13. The role of the volunteer in development: definition of appropriate technology
View the documentSession 14. Stove promotion and dissemination
View the documentSession 15. Explaining completed cookstoves
View the documentSession 16. Evaluating cookstove efficiency
View the documentSession 17. Diagnosing and repairing malfunctioning cookstoves
View the documentSession 18. Other responses to fuel scarcity
View the documentSession 19. Charcoal production and stoves
View the documentSession 20. Custom and food
View the documentSession 21. Design and construction of the second stove part one: stove base
View the documentSession 22. Alternative cookstoves: presentations
View the documentSession 23. Basic nutrition
View the documentSession 24. Cookstove operation
View the documentSession 25. Cookstove development and innovation
View the documentSession 26. Cookstove information and resources/ evaluation of cookstove training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

Session 8. Understanding the cookstove design process and soil mixes

Total time:

1 hour, 30 minutes


* To design a fuel-saving cookstove
* To discuss the importance of user input in the design process
* To discuss the principles of sand/clay ("Lorena") mixes


Evans and Boutette, Lorena Stoves, pp. 28-50


Pots, pans, lids, sand, clay, containers of different soil types, screens (filters), buckets, shovels, hoes, and water

Trainer Notes

This session requires preparation. Step 2 asks for three separate trainers to run through the three suggested roles. These trainers should be familiar with the particular stove design on which their roles will be focusing (See Trainer Notes under Step 2 for more specific information on the role-playing procedure).


Step 1. (5 minutes)
Review the session objectives and activities.

Step 2. (45 minutes)
Ask the participants to form three work groups. Introduce the three trainers who are playing the role of "villagers." Explain that each group should join one of the "villagers" to assist in assessing his/her needs regarding stove design.

Trainer Notes

Three types of cookstoves are suggested as the basis for the role playing: the Lorena, the Louga and the Java Chimneyless (See Lorena Stoves), These stoves were selected because they originated in three different parts of the world and their designs incorporate specific cultural and environmental needs.

Each of the three trainers to be involved in the role playing should be thoroughly versed with one of these cookstoves and their cultural/environmental origins. Each trainer should be prepared to play the role of a villager from the country of origin of his/her cookstove For example, the trainer responsible for the Lorena Stove would play a highland Guatemalan villager, reflecting that particular stove's origin.

Each "villager" should have pots and pans of the type and size used to design the particular stove and any other props that could add to the authenticity of the role-playing situation (i.e., dressing as a Guatemalan villager).

The idea is for the "villager" to manifest needs that will lead the work groups to discover the particular design suited to those needs (for instance, the Lorena for the Guatemalan highlander). The villager should try not to "give away" the stove design and allow the work groups to experience designing the stove with the villager's participation. It may be necessary for the trainer to occasionally step out of the role of the villager to help explain certain technical points during the conversation. This design process should involve drawing the stove layout on the ground and arranging the pots according to the design principles discussed in the previous session and Lorena Stoves.

Explain that each of the work groups will continue the process by actually building and using the stove they and the "villager' have designed.

Step 3. (20 minutes)
Reconvene the work groups and discuss soils and soil mixes.

Trainer Notes

The following questions may help stimulate discussion:

* What do you remember about soils from the earthen block session?
* What are the three components of soil?
* What distinguishes one type of soil from another?
* What are the characteristics of clay, sand and silt?
* How do they feel?
* How and where would you find clay? Sand?

Have containers of different soil types available to circulate so that people can feel and see the diference.

Conduct the soil tests for clay, if they haven't already been completed in the session on earthen blocks (see Lorena Stoves for details).

Distinguishing between usable and unusable clays is important Make and fire clay balls to demonstrate that good Clay holds together and poor clay flakes apart.

If time permits, conduct a field-walk to clay and sand deposits.

Step 4. (20 minutes)
Facilitate a discussion on clay/sand ("Lorena") mixes.

Trainer Notes

Guide the discussion with the following questions:

* What roles do sand and clay play in a mix?
* How would you test for a good sand/clay mix?

Have sample clay/sand mixtures of different proportions available so that participants can see and feel the differences. It is helpful to have dried test blocks available.

Refer the participants to pages of Lorena Stoves and discuss the different tests for determining the suitability of the sand/clay mixtures for stove construction. These tests are: test blocks (make some to test later), the palm, ball tests (do during the session) and model stoves.

Mention that there will be ample opportunities during the following construction sessions to develop a feel for the correct mix of sand and clay.

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