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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
close this folderPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
View the documentPhase III Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Maternal and child health: part 1
View the documentSession 2. The path of the sun
View the documentSession 3. Introduction to pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 4. Design considerations for pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 5. Classical mechanics: principles of pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 6. Use of appropriate aids to communication
View the documentSession 7. Maternal and child health: part 2
View the documentSession 8. Part one: familiarization with materials and tools
View the documentSession 8. Part two: familiarization with the bicycle
View the documentSession 9. Introduction to design considerations
View the documentSession 10. Presentation of designs
View the documentSession 11. Construction of pedal/treadle-powered devices
View the documentSession 12. Blacksmithing and metalwork
View the documentSession 13. Appropriate technologies for health
View the documentSession 14. Case studies in community health
View the documentSession 15. Preparation for pedal/treadle presentations* *
View the documentSession 16. Heat transfer
View the documentSession 17. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 1: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 18. Presentation of pedal/treadle-power devices
View the documentSession 19. Volunteers in development part one. women in development
View the documentSession 20. Mid-program evaluation part one : program evaluation
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

Session 13. Appropriate technologies for health

Total time:

2 hours


* To identify and discuss appropriate technologies for in ant and child nutrition
* To practice making rehydration formulas and weaning foods
* To develop communication aids designed to promote weaning foods in developing countries


* Werner, Where There Is No Doctor, pp. 107-124, 151-161
* Jelliffe, Child Nutrition in Developing Countries, Chapters 6 & 7
* Raphael, "Cultural Factors are Part of the Appropriate Technology for Weaning Foods," in APPROTECH, pp. 9-10
* Attachment III-13-A, "Guidelines for Feeding"
* Attachment III-13-B, "Weaning Foods"
* Attachment III-13-C, "A Measure for the Rehydration Formula"

Trainer Notes

We suggest that you copy some of the weaning food recipes for specific countries to which volunteers are assigned (see Step Refer to Jelliffe for recipes.



Newsprint and felt-tip pens; several critical photographs (see Trainer Notes under Step 1); cookstoves and food grinders; cooking utensils, pots and pans; water, sugar, salt, grains, legumes, dark green and yellow vegetables, oil


Step 1. (5 minutes)
Introduce the session by distributing and discussing selected critical photographs.

Trainer Notes

Effective photographs to focus the discussion have been: a mother force-feeding her infant, or an emaciated infant with a baby bottle.

Encourage discussion by asking the following questions:

* What is happening in these photographs?
* What appropriate technologies for health could be appiled in these situations ?

Step 2. (10 minutes)
Distribute and review Attachment III-13-A, "Guidelines for Feeding," and Attachment III-13B, "Weaning Foods."

Trainer Notes

At this point, you should also distribute and explain copies of weaning food recipes that are specific to the countries in which the participants will be serving. (See Trainer Notes under Resources.)

Step 3. (10 minutes)
Review the rehydrations formula and distribute and review Attachment III-13C, "A Measure for the Rehydration Formula."

Trainer Notes

Refer participants to Werner.

Step 4. (30 minutes)
Have participants form small groups and practice making rehydrations drinks and weaning foods.

Trainer Notes

* Post a general recipe for mixing and cooking a weaning food on newsprint for all to see.
* Have all foods and implements ready for use.
* Encourage participants to try varying recipes.
* Offer help whenever necessary.

Step 5. (40 minutes)
Briefly reconvene the group and explain that they should continue working in their small groups to develop communication aids designed to promote the use of weaning foods in developing countries.

Trainer Notes

* Have materials available: newsprint, cardboard, pens, etc.
* Stimulate ideas by suggesting: gourd babies to demonstrate debydration, role-plays, children's stories, cartoon strips, radio or press releases, songs, dances, games, etc.

Step 6. (15 minutes)
Reconvene the groups and have them present and explain their communication aids.

Trainer Notes

* Have the groups discuss ways to use their communication aids.
* Encourage the groups to give constructive feedback and suggestions for improvement of each aid.

Step 7. (5 minutes)
Review the session objectives and summarize the activities.


1. Breast. milk is best.
2. Put a new-born baby to breast as soon as possible.
3. Start feeding thin porridge at four months.
4. At six months, feed plenty of porridge with added protein three times a day.
5. Start the baby on new foods before he has the breast milk. Once he likes it, give it to him after his breast milk.
6. Breast feed a child as long as possible (18 months to two years of age).
7. Stop breast feeding slowly.

* * *

Remember, a young child:

* Needs feeding often
* Needs a special plate
* Needs food to be well mixed
* Needs to be fed with a spoon


* Weaning = to accustom

"It is no exaggeration to say that the most important global target for nutrition education is to persuade tropical parents to feed their children in the early years of life as well as possible with local foods produced in greater quantities in the village."

-D. B. Jelliffe-

Multimixes (4:1 ratios)

Double Mix

Staple + legume or animal protein or dark leafy green vegetable (DLGV)

Triple Mix

Staple + legume and animal protein or DLGV

Quadri Mix

Staple + legume and animal protein and DLGV

* * *

Weaning foods should be:

* Well cooked
* Soft and mashed
* Offer compact calories and protein


How children can make measuring spoons for preparing a SPECIAL DRINK to protect a child with diarrhea.

Children can make measuring spoons from many things, but it is important that they measure more or less the right amount of sugar and salt.

Here is one way to make spoons using things that have been thrown away.


From Hesperian Foundation.

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