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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
close this folderPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
View the documentPhase III Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Maternal and child health: part 1
View the documentSession 2. The path of the sun
View the documentSession 3. Introduction to pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 4. Design considerations for pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 5. Classical mechanics: principles of pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 6. Use of appropriate aids to communication
View the documentSession 7. Maternal and child health: part 2
View the documentSession 8. Part one: familiarization with materials and tools
View the documentSession 8. Part two: familiarization with the bicycle
View the documentSession 9. Introduction to design considerations
View the documentSession 10. Presentation of designs
View the documentSession 11. Construction of pedal/treadle-powered devices
View the documentSession 12. Blacksmithing and metalwork
View the documentSession 13. Appropriate technologies for health
View the documentSession 14. Case studies in community health
View the documentSession 15. Preparation for pedal/treadle presentations* *
View the documentSession 16. Heat transfer
View the documentSession 17. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 1: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 18. Presentation of pedal/treadle-power devices
View the documentSession 19. Volunteers in development part one. women in development
View the documentSession 20. Mid-program evaluation part one : program evaluation
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices
 

Session 14. Case studies in community health

Total time:

2 hours

Objectives:

* To examine several case studies/films that describe various community health strategies
* To discuss some characteristics of community health strategies
* To select topics for presentations during the next health session

Resources:

* Werner, Where There Is No Doctor, pp. W1-W29
* Brownlee, Community, Culture and Care, pp. 136-154 and 214-252
* The Hesperian Foundation, "Health Care by the People, " a film
* World Health Organization, Film #13, "Health for All - Sankofa Tradition and Development"
* Werner, The Village Health Worker - Lackey or Liberator?
* World Health Organization, “World Health Traditional Medicine"
* World Health Organization, "Appropriate Technologies for Health," newsletters.

Trainer Notes

It is useful, where possible, to locate some case studies for participants to review as additional reading. There are a number of good publications, such as "World Education Reports" and "Pan American Health," that are widely available and offer short articles on community health projects and systems in the developing world.

Before presenting this session, you will need to order the two films listed in the resources (see Steps 2 and 4).

Materials:

Film projector and screen, newsprint and felt-tip pens

Procedures:

Step 1. (5 minutes)
Review the session objectives and outline the activities.

Step 2. (35 minutes)
Show a film which illustrates a successful community health strategy.

Trainer Notes

* Refer to the resources for two films that have been very effective or substitute other films as desired.

* If the films are not available, an option is to locate written examples of case studies and have the participants review them.

Step 3. (15 minutes)
Have participants discuss their impressions of the film and identify some of the characteristics of community health strategies illustrated in the film.

Trainer Notes

The following questions can focus the discussion:

* Can you determine the philosophy of health?
* Is the health approach preventative, curative or both?
* Are health workers indigenous or foreign?
* What is the role of the traditional practitioner?
* Are traditional and modern health approaches integrated?
* Are appropriate technologies for health a part of the health system?

Step 4. (40 minutes)
Show a second film (or discuss another written case study).

Trainer Notes

For contrast, it is effective to show a second film (or read a second case study) which illustrates an unsuccessful health strategy.

Step 5. (15 minutes)
Invite comments about the film and have the participants identify characteristics of the community health strategy illustrated.

Step 6. (10 minutes)
Describe the plan for the next session and have participants form small interest groups to select topics for presentation.

Trainer Notes

Explain that their topics should be researched and that ten-minute presentations should be prepared for Phase V: Session 13

Encourage participants to use appropriate communication aids in their presentations (i.e., role plays, visual aids, etc.).

Participants should first review Werner and Brownlee for background information.

Effective topics that have emerged from past film discussions include:

* Village-based health workers or imported health teams
* Preventative vs. curative approaches to health
* Role of traditional practitioners
* Philosophy of self-help health
* Integration of traditional and modern health systems
* Appropriate technologies for health
* Role of Volunteer in community health systems

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