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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
close this folderPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
View the documentPhase III Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Maternal and child health: part 1
View the documentSession 2. The path of the sun
View the documentSession 3. Introduction to pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 4. Design considerations for pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 5. Classical mechanics: principles of pedal/treadle power
View the documentSession 6. Use of appropriate aids to communication
View the documentSession 7. Maternal and child health: part 2
View the documentSession 8. Part one: familiarization with materials and tools
View the documentSession 8. Part two: familiarization with the bicycle
View the documentSession 9. Introduction to design considerations
View the documentSession 10. Presentation of designs
View the documentSession 11. Construction of pedal/treadle-powered devices
View the documentSession 12. Blacksmithing and metalwork
View the documentSession 13. Appropriate technologies for health
View the documentSession 14. Case studies in community health
View the documentSession 15. Preparation for pedal/treadle presentations* *
View the documentSession 16. Heat transfer
View the documentSession 17. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 1: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 18. Presentation of pedal/treadle-power devices
View the documentSession 19. Volunteers in development part one. women in development
View the documentSession 20. Mid-program evaluation part one : program evaluation
Open this folder and view contentsPhase IV: Solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices
 

Session 1. Maternal and child health: part 1

Total time:

2 hours

Objectives:

* To identify and discuss signs and conditions of malnutrition and illness
* To discuss reasons for "high risk" health conditions among mothers and children in developing countries

Resources:

* Werner, Where There Is No Doctor, pp. 245-282, 283, 294 and 295-321
* Jelliffe, Child Nutrition in Developing Countries, Chapter V
* Attachment III-1, "Clinical Signs of Kwashiorkor and Nutritional Marasmus"
* Attachment I-9/3-A, "The Four Roles for a Structured Meeting"

Trainer Notes

Refer to the Health and Nutrition bibliography for additional resources on maternal and child health.

Materials:

Newsprint and felt-tip pens, projector and screen (optional), relevant visual aids: photos, stories, music (See Trainer Notes, Steps 1 and 2)

Procedures:

Step 1. (20 minutes)
Introduce the session by setting a climate.

Trainer Notes

It is effective to use some innovative communication tools to introduce this session. Recorded songs by women or children at work or play, sketches, stories, personal accounts by women talking about life and well-being, a film such as is listed in the resources, all serve to offer glimpses into the realities faced by women and children. It is particularly effective if the film, song, story, etc. originate from the country in which the participants will be serving as Peace Corps Volunteers.

Step 2. (15 minutes)
Have the participants form small groups and distribute several photographs of malnourished children to each group. Encourage discussion within the groups.

Trainer Notes

Post the following questions on newsprint and explain that they are intended to help guide the group discussions:

* What does the picture show?
* What response does it evoke?
* Why is this condition present?
* What can be done about it?
* How can Volunteers assist?
* What information is needed to better understand the conditions we see?

Refer to Jelliffe, Morley, Cameron for photographs.

Step 3. (15 minutes)
Reconvene the groups and have them share their -responses to the photographs.

Step 4. (15 minutes)
Present a brief talk on maternal and child health risks in the Third World and distribute and review Attachment III, "Clinical Signs of Kwashiorkor and Nutritional Marasmus."

Trainer Notes

In your brief talk, it is suggested that you cover the following points:

* High risk groups: pregnant women, lactating women, infants and young children to five years
* Degenerative and infectious disease patterns
* Definitions of states and signs of malnutrition: PCM, Marasmus, Kwashiorkor, deficiencies
* Birth to school-age health needs

A recommended resource for preparing the talk is Jelliffe, Child Nutrition in Developing Countries.

Step 5. (10 minutes)
Have participants brainstorm a list of ideas why women and children are considered "high risk." List the responses on newsprint.

Trainer Notes

Encourage a focus on issues, not specific diseases. Ideas may include:

* Need for or lack of nutrients in daily diet
* Changing patterns of eating
* Poverty
* No access to land
* Tradition

Step 6. (10 minutes)
Have the group list responses to the following question: What do you think are some specific diseases or conditions from which women and children suffer in developing countries ?

Trainer Notes

Some examples might be: colds, respiratory ailments, pneumonia, starvation, blindness, pellagra, rickets, anemia, hemmorhage, infection, diarrhea, dehydration, measles, mumps, chicken pox, tooth decay, bewitchment, mental illness, poisoning from chemicals, etc.

Step 7. (15 minutes)
Have the participants compare and discuss the relationships between the risk factors listed in Step 5 and the specific diseases listed in Step 6.

Trainer Notes

Stimulate discussion by asking:

* Which diseases appear to be associated with a number of risk factors?
* Which risk factors seem to influence most directly health or illness?
* Can we make any generalizations?

Step 8. (5 minutes)
Have the participants form interest groups and develop presentations on potential volunteer strategies for responding to maternal and child health care issues and related illnesses.

Trainer Notes

Explain that each interest group should select one topic for investigation and research and be prepared to present their conclusions and recommendations in the next Health and Nutrition session.

As guidelines, mention that the presentations should:

* Use the "Four Roles for a Structured Meeting," from Attachment I-9/3-A
* Include economic, cultural, political, environmental and medical factors

Suggest topics for the interest groups (i.e., bottle baby syndrome, chemical dumping, female circumcision, taboos (sexual and dietary), labor, etc.

Present any available resources that would be helpful for the group's investigations.

Step 9. (5 minutes)
Briefly review the session objectives.

CLINICAL SIGNS OF KWASHIORKOR AND NUTRITIONAL MARASMUS


Underweidht - KWASHIOKOR


Very Underweight - NUTRITION MARASMUS

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