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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
close this folderPhase IV: Solar water heaters
View the documentPhase IV Calendar
View the documentSession 1. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 2: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 2. Introduction to solar water heaters
View the documentSession 3. Assessing community water needs and uses
View the documentSession 4. Introduction to solar water heating: determining hot water demand
View the documentSession 5. Plumbing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 6. Sizing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 7. Demonstrating a technical concept
View the documentSession 8. Shade mapping and solar siting
View the documentSession 9. Design of solar water heaters.
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar water heaters
View the documentSession 11. Multi-media standard first aid
View the documentSession 12. Wind technology
View the documentSession 13. Volunteer in development part 2: women in development
View the documentSession 14. House design in four climates
View the documentSession 15. Presentation of solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

Session 3. Assessing community water needs and uses

Total time:

4 hours


* To develop and use a community water needs assessment form in the evaluation of local water use and requirements


* To discuss the importance of sensitivity to community organization, culture, customs and values


* Attachment IV-3-A: "Guidelines for Community Water Needs:


* "Skills for Development Facilitators" from Manual Introduction


Step 1. (10 minutes)
Give an overview of the session and distribute Attachment IV-3-A: "Guidelines for Community Water Assessment Needs."

Step 2. (30 minutes)
Have participants form work groups. Then read and discuss the attachment. Each group should develop a plan to assess the water needs in a local community.

Step 3. (2 hours)
Each group follows the plans they have developed to assess community water needs and uses. Ask them to prepare a brief report of findings and methods.

Step 4. (1 hour)
The groups meet and present their reports

Trainer Notes

To stimulate discussion, these questions might be raised:

* Why type of assessment was used?
* Why was it selected?
* Was the method effective? How could you tell?
* Were community members receptive?
* What was it like to be in the role of interviewer?
* How did you know if the sources were reliable?
* Were there any specific customs and/or values which seemed to facilitate/impede the information gathering process?

Step 5. (20 minutes)
Ask participants to review the skills for development facilitators (from the manual introduction) and discuss any correlation between the five skill areas and the procedures involved in this session.

Trainer Notes

You may find it helpful to focus the discussion by emphasizing similarities and/or differences in the sequential order of the skill areas and the procedures of this session.


In teams of 2 to 4 people, choose an aspect of community life (education, health care, residential, support systems, etc.) and through community assessment techniques (questionnaire, interview, observation, conversation, combinations of a number of methods), gather data about the water requirements and uses in that particular area. The data should include:

* End use of the water
* Amounts and temperatures required at the end use
* Disposal systems for gray and black water (including who is responsible, the specific methods of disposal)
* Description of the water system
* Water sources and methods of storage
* Purification systems
* Health problems associated with the water system

In gathering the information, please follow these guidelines:

* All team members should participate actively in all phases of the exercise.

* Information gathering should be conducted in a sensitive and careful manner. (Always ask permission before entering a place or reading a meter. Be sure you don't prowl around or intrude.)

* Concentrate on using appropriate communication skills: respect your informants' privacy and values, listen and report accurately, be patient, report facts, not what you wish you had found.

* Limit the scope of the report -- or you may be overwhelmed.

Your written report should include:

* A summary of data
* A copy of questions asked
* Methodology used
* Resources consulted during the project
* Suggestions for improving the assessment
* Recommendations to improve existing water systems and health status in ways that are environmentally sound, energy efficient, and within cultural and economic constraints of the community

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