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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1982; 685 pages)
View the documentThe Farallones Institute Rural Center
View the documentCHP International, INC.
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPhase I: Introduction to training
Open this folder and view contentsPhase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
Open this folder and view contentsPhase III: Pedal/treadle power
close this folderPhase IV: Solar water heaters
View the documentPhase IV Calendar
View the documentSession 1. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 2: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 2. Introduction to solar water heaters
View the documentSession 3. Assessing community water needs and uses
View the documentSession 4. Introduction to solar water heating: determining hot water demand
View the documentSession 5. Plumbing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 6. Sizing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 7. Demonstrating a technical concept
View the documentSession 8. Shade mapping and solar siting
View the documentSession 9. Design of solar water heaters.
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar water heaters
View the documentSession 11. Multi-media standard first aid
View the documentSession 12. Wind technology
View the documentSession 13. Volunteer in development part 2: women in development
View the documentSession 14. House design in four climates
View the documentSession 15. Presentation of solar water heaters
Open this folder and view contentsPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
Open this folder and view contentsPhase VI: Concluding the program: The energy fair
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

Session 8. Shade mapping and solar siting

Total time:

2 hours


* To develop a shade map for solar site


* To determine a good solar site


* Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book, pp. 325-327


* Attachment IV-8-A, "Plotting Azimuth and Altitude"


* Attachment IV-8-8, "Shade Mapping Worksheet"


Directional compasses, protractors, string, plumb bobs (such as 12mm nuts, rocks, etc.), newsprint and felt-tip pens


Step 1. (5 minutes)
List the objectives and outline the session activities.

Step 2. (10 minutes)
Distribute Attachments IV-8-A and IV-8-B to each participant and explain them briefly.

Step 3. (40 minutes)
Have the participants form their solar work groups and develop a shade map for a potential solar site as shown in Attachment IV-8-A.

Trainer Notes

* Distribute one directional compass, protractor, string and plumb bob to each group.

* Circulate among the groups to see that everyone understands shade mapping. Offer assistance as needed. Be sure each group has its compass set properly, as shown in Attachment IV-8-A.

Step 4. (30 minutes)
Reconvene the groups and analyze the sun charts by having participants share and discuss their findings

Trainer Notes

* Demonstrate that a shade map can be analyzed by overlaying a sun chart with the shade mapping worksheet (Attachment IV-8B) and looking through them toward a light source, such as the sun. If obstacles show above any of the sun paths, the potential solar site will be shaded at that time of year and that time of day. If the shading is or will be substantial, another site will have to be found.

* Have each group describe their potential solar site and their analysis of that site.

* Ask what range of azimuths need to be considered for possible shading problems a. the training site.

* Ask where the "solar window" is on the sun chart.

Step 5. (20 minutes)
Have the groups develop another shade map.

Trainer Notes

* Participants can be given the choice of developing a shade map for either a hypothetical site on the equator or a site in the country in which they will be serving.

* Encourage different people to do the siting and recording so that all of the group members get practice and understand the process.

Step 6. (20 minutes)
Reconvene the groups and discuss the findings.

Trainer Notes

* Ask what range of azimuths need to be considered on the equator or in the host countries.

* Explain that the solar sites located by the groups during this session can be used as locations for their solar collectors during the next two phases.

* Mention that the groups have the option of designing solar collectors for the training site or for their host country (if they're not the same) since the orientation and tilt may be different.


Finding azimuth

Step 1
Find the azimuth of the obstacle (tree) by lining up your eye, the center or the compass and the obstacle. Be sure the compass is corrected for magnetic variation. Read the azimuth of the obstacle, 160° in this example.

Step 2
Find the altitude by lining up your eye with the top of the obstacle along the straight edge of the protractor. The plumb bob will register the altitude, 20° in this example.

Step 3
Plot the azimuth (160° from Step 1) and the altitude (20° from Step 2) on the shade mapping worksheet as shown. If the December 21 sun path does not cross the image of the obstacle (tree), the obstacle will not shade the collector at this solar site.

Step 4
Locate all possible obstacles and plot them on the shade mapping worksheet. Analyze the data to determine if the potential solar site is actually a good solar site.


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