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close this bookAquaculture - Training Manual (Peace Corps; 1990; 350 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentForward
View the documentChapter one: Introduction
View the documentChapter two: Training philosophy and methodology
View the documentChapter three: Goals and objectives
View the documentChapter four: Site requirements, logistics and length of training
View the documentChapter five: Trainee qualifications and assessment
View the documentChapter six: Staff qualifications, staffing pattern and staff training
View the documentChapter seven: Ten-week program: summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter eight: Eight-week program: limltations, adjustments, program summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter nine: Program design considerations and orientation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter ten: Program design - week one
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eleven: Program design - week two
Open this folder and view contentsChapter twelve: Program design - week three
Open this folder and view contentsChapter thirteen: Program design - week four
Open this folder and view contentsChapter fourteen: Program design - week five
close this folderChapter fifteen: Program design - week six
View the documentDesign VI-1: Seminar preparation and presentations
View the documentSession VI-2: Pond interview week six
View the documentSession VI-3: Trainee evaluation of program - week six
Open this folder and view contentsChapter sixteen: Program design- week seven
View the documentChapter seventeen: Program design - week eight
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eighteen: Program design - week nine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter nineteen: Program design - week ten
View the documentChapter twenty: Program evaluation
View the documentChapter twenty-one: Recommendations for in-country training
View the documentChapter twenty-two: Publications, equipment and materials
 

Design VI-1: Seminar preparation and presentations

Total time: approximately 102 hours

Objectives:

• Provide trainees with in-depth technical and practical information on various aspects of fish culture and extension;

• Provide experience in organizing, researching and presenting information;

• Practice public speaking and using a variety of extension techniques.

Overview: Trainees receive input from staff on the content of the seminars and do an abbreviated practice run-through for staff prior to their actual presentation in order to help fine tune their organization and style of delivery. Through preparing and presenting their own seminars and listening to each others' seminars, they obtain a tremendous amount of technical and related information. They get valuable practice in effective communication and in utilizing a wide variety of extension techniques. Each seminar is followed by a peer critique so the trainees can receive immediate feedback on their presentations. Seminars cover a tremendous amount of material and are typically of very high quality.

30 minutes per topic

1. Once seminar topics have been assigned and trainees have turned in a first draft of an outline on an individual basis, the staff schedules meetings with the individual or team assigned to each seminar topic. At this time, the staff discusses the outlines with the trainees, adding any points that should be covered in the seminar that were not in the outlines, or deleting points that will be covered elsewhere or are not necessary. The staff informs the trainees of any special considerations, potential problems or suggestions that may help the trainees during their preparation, and encourages the trainees to request any resources, materials or other items they may need as soon as possible.

Approximately 36 hours

2. Trainees do research and other preparations for their seminar presentations. They may utilize the texts they received, the on-site library, local human resources, and experimentation they may choose to do at the ponds. In addition, staff may help set up interviews with experts based on descriptions of the kinds of resource people to whom the trainees would like to have access. This may take place through telephone interviews or personal appointments. The degree to which staff actually serves as resources for the content of the seminars varies with the topic and accessibility of outside resource people.

Throughout seminar preparations, the staff should meet frequently with the trainees on an individual basis to discuss their research and to ensure that the topic is covered thoroughly. Staff is available to fulfill requests for materials and set up interviews with appropriate resource people.

Approximately 60 hours

3. Trainees present seminars. Following each presentation, the group critiques the presenters on clarity, completeness,organization, and presentation style.

Resources awl Materials:

• On-site library that contains a wide variety of textbooks, journals, reprints, industry newsletters, sample extension materials and any other publications that may be useful.

• If possible, access to a public or university library.

• Access by phone or personal visits to a variety of resource people who are experts in the fields being researched. Some examples include local extension agents, agriculture economists, agricultural processors, feed mill employees, fish or animal nutrition experts, contractors with experience in pond construction, masons, fish farmers, fish disease diagnosticians, live haulers, water quality experts, and aquaculture specialists with experience with small-scale, simple operations and large, high-tech operations.

• Comfortable, quiet, well-lit facilities with tables and chairs.

• Notebook paper, pens, pencils, colored pencils, graph paper, rulers, index cards, glue, other office supplies.

 

• Newsprint, markers, poster board, poster paints, flip-chart stands, masking tape, chalk, blackboard, modelling clay, mason jars, lumber, nails, wire screen, wire, twine, clean 50 gallon drum for making smoker, dissecting kits, potassium permanganate, salt, goggles, rubber gloves, vast assortment of other materials as requested by trainees for preparation of visual aids and demonstrations.

 

• Equipment from tool shed to be used for demonstrations such as water testing kits, assorted seines and dip nets, buckets, tubs, shovels, soil auger, transport tank, aerators, saws, hammers, tape measures, surveying equipment, etc.

• Extra fish for trainees to practice demonstrations in sexing, dissection, taxonomy, etc.

• Pick-up truck for transport demonstration and running errands.

• Comfortable classroom facilities for presentations.

Trainer Notes:

• Preparation for seminars and the actual presentations are extremely time consuming and intense. This two week period tends to be a very tense time for the trainees as they put in long hours, feel a lot of pressure and nervous anticipation. There is a lot of dependency on staff to provide needed materials and access to resources. Staff should be aware of this and be as supportive and cooperative as possible. Efficiency in providing requested materials will prevent undue stress and allow trainees who have been responsible enough to put in their requests in a timely fashion to get properly prepared without having to work in a frenzy at the last minute.

 

• The logistics involved in picking up the diverse and largely unpredictable materials that are requested by trainees, providing guidance and encouragement, scheduling interviews with resource people, and driving trainees to meetings or outside libraries can become quite complex. As much prior planning should be done as is possible, and staff members should be assigned to specific tasks. For example, the trainees should be told to submit all requisitions for materials and equipment to the trainer in charge of inventory, and this is the trainer who is responsible for obtaining and distributing that material. Another staff member should be responsible for contacting resource people and setting up appointments. Try to divide up the tasks among the staff so that the trainees needs can be met as quickly and efficiently as possible.

 

• One trainer should be in charge of setting up the on-site library, including a catalog that is cross-referenced by at least title and subject. This trainer should choose one or two trainees to oversee the use of the library and make sure it is maintained in an orderly fashion. The trainer should inform the trainees of all rules and restrictions regarding the checking out of library materials. These rules should be determined well in advance of the time the library is opened to the trainees. Some things to consider include length of time for which an item may be checked out, whether or not trainees are permitted to bring materials to the living quarters, accountability for items if the trainee who has checked something out shares it with another trainee, and keeping the shelves neat and the materials in order.

 

• Staff should meet frequently with trainees working on each topic throughout the week of preparation to track progress and provide input. At some point, preferably a few days prior to the actual presentation, staff should schedule a practice run-through with each individual or team. This can be an abbreviated version of the presentation, but should provide the staff with a good sense of the content, flow and organization. This is also a good way to test the effectiveness of visual aids and demonstrations. Staff should give trainees direct feedback and suggestions immediately following the practice run.

 

• Time frames for the seminar presentations vary according to the topic, the required demonstrations and the quality of organization of the presentation. The range is generally from about two hours to six hours.

 

• When trainees meet with the staff to discuss their outlines, they may ask about the length of the presentation. Tell them there is no set time limit, but point out the series of seminars are to be done in about a week. Ask them to give the staff an estimate of their time requirement as they get further into their preparations.

 

• Point out to the trainees that once seminars begin, there is little time available for further preparation, so everyone should be ready to go when the first seminar begins. Be sure they understand that if a seminar is stopped, the next seminar in line will be expected to go immediately.

 

• Once presentations begin, pay special attention to trainee mood swings and energy levels. It may be necessary at times to cut off a seminar that runs late into the evening when the group is obviously too tired to absorb any more information.

 

• During the meeting in which the seminars were introduced,trainees were informed that presentations would be stopped if they were not high enough in quality. The decision to stop a seminar is not made lightly, but it is not unusual to have to stop one or two seminars during a series. Reasons for stopping may include: inaccurate information is being disseminated, the material is incomplete, the presentation is disorganized, the style of the presentation is confusing, unclear or unprofessional. (It may also be necessary to stop a presentation because the audience is not attentive, because of a time factor, or other some other situation that is unrelated to the job being done by the presenters; this type of situation is not what is being referred to here). If it is necessary to stop a presentation, the following should be kept in mind:

 

• If the problem is not too serious, it may be possible to take a short break rather than stop the seminar altogether. This may be the case in a situation where the presenter is very nervous and just needs to collect his/her thoughts, or if there is a single confusing point that needs to be clarified that the trainee can straighten out by checking briefly in his/her notes or a book.

 

• The way the staff handles stopping a seminar is very important, especially in light of the tense emotional state that prevails during this period. The best approach is to call for a break and speak to the presenter(s) privately outside the room. Often, they will realize that they are having some difficulties and will decide on their own that they should stop and do further preparations.

 

• In many cases, the trainee has been working hard and is having problems due to nervousness, lack of sleep, or lack of experience that has resulted in poor organization. It is extremely important to be sensitive and supportive. The trainee may feel that he/she is letting down the rest of the group, and it is critical not to further undermine the individual's confidence. Point out some of the positive aspects and offer to meet later in the day to help the trainee develop a strategy for getting whatever the problem is under control. Then be sure to do so.

 

• There are other cases where it is less evident why the trainee is having a problem. Sometimes it really is due to a lack of effort on the part of the trainee during the preparation phase. Even if you suspect this is the case, any trainee is feeling vulnerable at the moment when his/her seminar is being stopped. This is not the time for lengthy reprimands or lectures, though an interview in the near future might be in order. For the moment, simply point out the problems and arrange to meet later to discuss what will need to be done to prepare for a makeup presentation.

 

• Never reprimand or belittle the trainee, or otherwise cause him/her embarrassment or humiliation in front of the group.

 

• After speaking briefly in private with the trainee, return to the classroom and inform the group that the seminar will be continued at another time. Ask the presenters of the next seminar how long they will need to set up, and set the time for that next seminar to begin.

 

• For each seminar, the staff assigns specific demonstrations to complement the lecture. Trainees are encouraged to develop and utilize other demonstrations,visual aids, and a variety of extension techniques.

 

• Attached is a set of sample outlines of the basic requirements for each seminar topic. Trainees must include detailed information on the material in these outlines, though they can supplement them with additional material that they feel is relevant or interesting. Outlines include required demonstrations.

Seminar: Extension/Administration

Note: This will be the first seminar presented. One of the responsibilities of this group is to model a good seminar. Since seminars are, in themselves, a form of extension, this presentation should help the other people to do a better job on their own seminars. Guidelines should be given for how to deliver an effective seminar. Organization, preparation and use of visual aids should be stressed. This group will facilitate the critiques following each seminar and give a wrap-up at the end of seminar week. They will point out what techniques were used during the presentations and facilitate a discussion of which techniques were the most/least effective, etc.

Presenters of this seminar will describe a wide variety of extension techniques. They should utilize as many of these techniques as possible throughout their presentation.

I. Define extension.

• Point out that extension is basically the same in any culture, including the U.S.
• Discuss extension education as opposed to giving instructions.
• Discuss how psychology and sociology are part of extension.
• Discuss "intensive" vs. "extensive" extension.
• Flow of information: Research • Extension • Farmer

II. Characteristics of a good extensionist

• Professionalism/Credibility
• Active listening
• Cultural/social sensitivity
• Communication and interpersonal skills
• Powers of observation/perception
• Recognition that extension is a 7-day, 24 hour job
• Extensionist is part of a community, must understand that community
• Good role model

III. Gathering and filtering information

• Perception/assessment of needs/avoiding bias
• Asking the right questions
• Utilizing resources

IV. Goal Setting

• Being realistic
• Programmatic goals (knowing where you fit into the "Big Picture"; the larger plan)
• Volunteer goals
• Farmer Goals
• Dangers of overextending

V. Farmer selection

• Setting criteria
• "Innovator, early adapter, moderate, diehard"
• "Dropping" farmers, saying "no"

VI. Extension Methods/Techniques

• Farmer visits

 

• Meetings

 

• Contact farmers

 

• Discuss group dynamics and how to use groups

• Acceptance of new ideas

 

• Developing a feeling of community

 

• Cooperative projects (possible advantages/disadvantages/problems)

 

• Tools:

• Appropriateness/effectiveness of each in different situations/local cultures

 

• Specific suggestions, i.e., mechanics of a visual aid (a flip chart shouldn't flop over while in use)

• Advantages/disadvantages, possible hidden problems with some of these tools:

• analogies
• visual aids
• demonstrations
• sharing individual/common experiences
• songs
• role plays
• field trips
• workshops/seminars
• games
• incentives (awards, "decorations", etc.)

VII. Model farmers

• Definition
• How to make them part of an extension program
• Quality vs quantity

VIII. Appropriate technology

• Definition

• Examples

• Avoiding preconceptions and bias in either direction(i.e., assuming something can't be done if lack high-tech equipment when some appropriate substitute could be developed versus "tripping over the PVC pipe while looking for the bamboo")

IX. Case studies

• Determining feasibility and possible ramifications of extension projects.

• Discuss "hidden effects", possibility of unforeseen ramifications, effects on social structure, local economy, etc.

X. Working with counterparts

XI. Administration

• Working within a bureaucracy or several bureaucracies simultaneously

• Importance of knowing both formal and informal organizational structure

• Chain of command (where you fit in, what happens if you skip steps, "short circuit" the system)

• Working with "superiors/subordinates"

• Motivating others

• Program planning and evaluation

• Project proposals

XII. Records and reports

• Importance of record keeping and report writing
• Considering and meeting the needs of the reader/user
• Professional presentation

Demonstrations:

• Develop analogies for some of the topics covered in other seminars

• Demonstrate several extension techniques as part of presentation (role plays, analogies, games, teaching a skill using a few different methods, use of a variety of visual aids, etc.)

• Develop sample record-keeping formats for fish culture extension

Seminar: Site Selection/Pond Construction

I. Site Selection

• General considerations/principles: farmer's objectives, resources, other crops grown in area, possible future use of area, minimizing work for maximum quality ponds, market potential, etc.

• Water:

• Compare advantages and disadvantages of various sources:i.e., well, stream, source, watershed, irrigation, swamps, etc.

• Discuss importance/difficulties of gathering information regarding reliability of water sources.

• Consideration of social mores, evaporation,seepage, tidal fluctuations, hottest/driest part of year

• Soils: Describe, discuss various soil types, their composition, characteristics and suitability for fish pond construction.

• Topography:

• how various topographies (including various valley types and slopes, lend themselves to certain pond design (shape, size, orientation, etc.)and how they affect cut and fill

• taking advantage of natural topography

• potential for expansion

• Accessibility to farmer, market, resources, etc.

II. Pond design

• Basic types (barrage, diversion, watershed, groundwater, etc.)

• Advantages and disadvantages of types of ponds

• How different pond types can be used together

• Options for layout of multi-pond systems (include rosary and parallel systems, advantages and disadvantages of each)

• Management considerations regarding pond design

• Use of canals

III. Pond Construction

• Staking out a pond (special consideration to making this understandable to a farmer).

• Cut and fill (importance, methods to equalize)

• Cores

• Dams (toes, side slopes, top width, height, etc.)

• Volume of dam

• Compaction

• Slopes (pond bottom, canals)

• Drainage/Inlet structures (monks, sluices, pipes, canals)

• Anti-seep collars

• Emergency spillway/overflow (purpose: emphasize point is to save pond, not fish, options, important characteristics

• Sealing pond bottom (bentonite, gley, etc.)

• Machine vs. hand labor

• compare cost/time to build 200 and 600 square meter ponds using bulldozer or hand labor

• compare time to move a cubic yard of dirt

• Flow rates of different diameter pipe

IV. Masonry

• Basic definitions (masonry, concrete, cement, mortar, aggregate, rebar, curing, etc.)

• Design, construction and preparation of form

• Use of reinforcement

• Concrete: choosing appropriate mix, mixing, pouring, curing.

Demonstrations:

• Get samples of many different kinds of soil. Have trainees handle them dry and wet. Do experiments/demos showing water holding properties of different soils.

• Demonstrate several appropriate field tests for evaluating suitability of soils

• Use a simple model (sandbox type) to show how topography affects layout of ponds,clarify meaning of cut and fill and how topography and placement of pond can affect it, illustrate pond types and options for combining types of ponds, etc.

 

• Demonstrate use of string level, A-frame and compare accuracy of string level, Aframe, hand level and dumpy level

• This group will oversee actual pond construction and,possibly, masonry projects done by the group.

• Give assignment to trainees to be turned in before field trip: design a monk form,illustrate the design clearly and completely so that a carpenter could actually built the form from that illustration.

Seminar: Anatomy/Physiology/Taxonomy

Note: This seminar can become much too academic. Caution trainees about this. Tell them to keep information geared toward the practical and not to bog down in too much detail, especially in physiology. They should spend the most time on things that are unique to fish (i.e., they do not have to spend a lot of time discussing the function of the heart or brain). A good approach to suggest is that the seminar be geared toward giving people an appreciation for the unique and fascinating ways in which this animal with which they are working is adapted to its environment.

I. Anatomy (definition, purpose)

• External: mouth orientation, body shape, bilateral symmetry, total and standard length, fins, spines and rays,scales, sensory organs, openings, coloration, etc.

 

• Internal: digestive organs (Feed seminar will address adaptations of the digestive system), reproductive organs, respiratory and circulatory organs, etc.

• Age determination

II. Physiology (definition, purpose)

• Compare physiology of aquatic and terrestrial organisms throughout this section

• Respiration and circulation

• Digestion and excretion

• Osmoregulation

• How fish respond physiologically to their environment and to various water quality conditions (include brown blood)

III. Taxonomy (definition, purpose, overview of history, methods)

• How to use a taxonomic key
• Morphology, meristic counts
• How to look at a fish when attempting to identify it
• Practical application of taxonomy
• Potential problems, difficulties, reasons for confusion in the area of taxonomy

IV. Tilapia species

• Briefly discuss history of taxonomy of the tilapiine fishes, why literature is confusing, frequency of changes in system, interbreeding, numerous strains,geographical distribution, etc.

• Explain most commonly used system:

• Oreochromis (maternal mouth brooders)

• Saratherodon (paternal or biparental mouth brooders)

• Tilapia (substrate brooders).

• Discuss taxonomy of O. niloticus, O. aureus, T. zillii O. mossambicus, T. rendalli and 5. galilaeus

• Make a chart with basic information on these species including feeding habits,tolerances, reproductive habits, etc.

V. Other species (other tilapias and/or other fish) cultured in the countries to which the trainees are assigned.

Demonstrations:

• Lead all trainees in the dissection of a fish (each trainee dissects a fish individually). This should demonstrate not only the anatomy of the fish, but should be a lesson in how to dissect a fish properly.

 

• Key out as many tilapiine species as are available,with at least one representative of an Oreochromis and one representative of Tilapia. If desired, key out some other local species as well. Try to use a good variety of genera and species.

Seminar: Stocking/Sampling/Growth

I. Stocking

• Review considerations and steps involved in making a stocking plan. (Suggestion: use the stocking plans they did for their own ponds as an example, perhaps redo a stocking plan for one of their ponds now that they have more knowledge). Considerations should include:

• Determination of stocking density

• Carrying capacity

• Factors that affect carrying capacity

• Stocking purpose

• Use of biomass vs number to express carrying capacity, etc.

• Growth rate

• Mortality

• Effects of over and understocking

• Fish selection

• Species characteristics

• Other factors: farmer goals, pond characteristics,availability, etc.

II. Sampling

• Purposes

• Methods (cast net, seine, traps, electro-shock, lift nets, mark/recapture etc.)

• Sample size, frequency

• Interpretation of sampling data

• Condition factor

• Weighing and measuring fish (methods, special considerations)

III. Growth

• Factors that affect growth

• How stocking density can affect growth

• Calculating and evaluating growth and FCR

• projecting harvest times
• adjusting feeding rates

• Normal growth patterns

• How growth is expressed (growth rate rather than % growth)

• Age versus size

• Define "indeterminate growth" and "compensatory growth"

IV. Nets (Note: This section may be covered in the Harvest/Transport Seminar rather than in this one, or responsibility for this information can be shared between the two groups.)

• Parts of a seine, cast net

• Describe different types of nets and their uses

• Describe different types of mesh, how netting is measured, etc.

• Care of nets (treating, sunlight, drying, hanging, etc.)

Demonstrations:

• Teach trainees to weave netting: give assignment for swatch that will fit on a sheet of notebook paper, half inch mesh. (Note: this can done on the field trip.)

• Teach trainees to hang a seine.

• Demonstrate the use of a cast net.

• Set up an aquarium. Stock it with fry and maintain and monitor these fish throughout the rest of the program. Keep track of feeding rates, growth, FCR and other relevant information. Put up a chart and keep the rest of the group informed of progress and results.

 

• When discussing sampling, do an example that applies several of the topics covered. Follow a real or fabricated set of data from a pond of fish. Show what information is learned at each sample, and how that information in interpreted, how FCR, growth rate and condition factors are calculated, and how the information is used to make management decisions. This can be done through flip charts that are filled in as you discuss them, handouts or other tools.

Seminar: Feeds/Feeding

I. Feeds

• Nutritional requirements of fish: differences for fry, food fish, broodfish

• Nutrients in feeds

• which nutrients supplied by different foodstuffs
• complete vs. incomplete diets
• complementarily in proteins

• Forms of fish feed: pellets, crumbles, meals, etc.

• compare properties, advantages and disadvantages of floating vs. sinking pellets, describe how pellets are made

• Storage of feed: results of improper storage (i.e., aflatoxins, loss of nutrients, etc.)

• Use of blood in fish feed

• Formulating feeds: least cost formulation, use of agricultural by-products

• Feed Conversion Ratios (from the nutritionist standpoint)

II. Feeding

• Choosing the feed appropriate to the fish (size, form, content for fry, foodfish, broodstock

• Getting fish "on feed"

• Frequency, times of day

• How can you tell if fish are feeding, if they are overfed, underfed?

• Methods of feeding: demand feeders, automatic feeders,ad-lib, satiation, percent body weight, etc.

• The food chain

• Feeding habits of different fish

• Anatomy related to feeding

Demonstrations:

• Dissect tilapia, catfish and a carnivorous fish (trout or bass), and compare digestive anatomy and show how fish are adapted to certain feeding habits.

 

• Formulate a diet using: rice bran, peanut cake, blood meal, and corn, or formulate and actually make a feed out of available foodstuffs.

 

• Have a variety of samples of feeds (include any feeds available at training site, as well as any others that can be obtained). Compare stability in water (time until pellets break down, time till floating food sinks, etc.), smell, taste, texture, size, etc.

Seminar: Water Quality/Fertilization

Note: Stress to trainees assigned this topic that this can be an intimidating and/or tedious seminar if not well done because of the chemistry involved. Effort should be made to tie the contents of this to practical application as much as possible. The material should be directed toward fish pond managers and should provide them with the information they need to understand the dynamics of a pond well enough to make correct management decisions. Should point out what kind of observations the manager should make, what he/she may see and what he/she should do about it. They should make use of the charts of their own ponds to find examples (use own ponds as case studies), and use as many demonstrations as possible.

I. Water Quality: Basic dynamics of water quality in fish ponds, associated cycles and interactions, what affects levels of various nutrients and chemical components in water, critical levels, etc.:

• pH, alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, hardness, nitrate, nitrites, phosphorus, hydrogen sulfide, etc.

• Buffering system, use of lime

• Turbidity

• Predicting low dissolved oxygen (discuss and test some prediction models)

• Effects of overfeeding on water quality

• Stratification

• "Off-flavor"

• Aeration, natural and mechanical forms

II. Fertilization/"Bloom Management"

• Define terms including bloom, crash, inorganic and organic fertilizer

• Limiting factors (what are they (usually), how can you know, what do you do about it?)

• Inorganic fertilizer/Organic fertilizer (characteristics, examples of each, when to use which, how they can be used to complement each other)

• Compare nutrient level of different manures

• Application methods and rates for fertilizer

• Compost

• Monitoring a bloom (using turbidity tests, oxygen readings, other factors)

• Getting a bloom in acidic waters

• Meteorological effects.

Demonstrations:

• Proper use of the Hach kit

• Composting

• Graph DO's and test some of the prediction models they read about

• Solubility of various fertilizers

• Hay infusion

• Before and after water quality tests for liming, fertilization, CuS04 or KMnO4 (work with Parasite and Disease team)

 

• To demonstrate buffering: Prepare two samples of the same water. Add lime to one sample. Check pH of both samples. Slowly add drops of sulfuric acid to each sample, check changes in pH to see relative changes between the buffered and unbuffered sample

 

• To demonstrate relationship between pH and C02: Add pH indicator to a small bottle of water and note color. Blow into the water through a straw or tube and note color change as pH decreases.

Seminar: Handling/Parasites and Disease/Predators

Note: The theme of this seminar, to be stressed throughout, is the importance of prevention.

I. Handling

• Fish should be handled "as if each is the last of its species"

• Handling fry, foodfish, broodstock

• Counting, weighing and measuring techniques

• Acclimation

II. Classifications of disease organisms that affect fish

• Point out that disease organisms are always present, health and condition of fish determine susceptibility

 

• For each classification, give several examples of common ones and a representative life cycle to demonstrate why some problems are seasonal or infect fish through different means. Do not go through life cycles of each organism.

III. Other factors that may cause illness in fish (i.e., pollution, nutritional deficiencies

IV. Symptoms and Diagnosis

• Describe both from the very general (indications that all is not right in the pond) to the specific (actual identification of organism)

• What observations should the fish farmer make?

• Which fish should be examined?

• How should fish be examined?

• What are some symptoms generally associated with certain types of disease or parasite problems (although you can only generalize to a point)?

V. Treatment

• Go over common treatments used in fish culture (salt, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, malachite green, terramycin, acriflavin, furacin, formalin, masoten, etc.)

• Characteristics of these treatments and cautions regarding their use.

• Methods of treatment (dip, bath, pond, treated feed, etc.)

• Calculation of dosages (do several examples)

• Legal aspects of use of chemicals

• Other considerations when deciding about use of chemicals (cost, stress to fish vs. stress of disease itself, etc.)

VI. Transmission of disease and how to prevent it

VII. Predators

• Common predators in fish ponds

• How they get in and what they do

• How to keep them out

• How to get rid of them once they're in

Note: Connections should be drawn wherever appropriate among the three main topics in this seminar.

Demonstrations:

• Dip and pond treatments (show how dosages were calculated, mixing the chemical, assay with test fish, protection of the person applying the chemical, actual application.

 

• Show how to prepare a slide in order to examine a fish for a parasite or disease organism (where to take sample from fish, i.e., skin scrape, clip fin, etc.).

Seminar: Reproduction/Genetics

I. Reproductive habits of the tilapias

• Discuss and explain differences between reproductive habits of Tilapia, Oreochromis, and Saratherodon

 

• Make chart for O. niloticus, O. aureus, O. mossambicus, • zillii T. rendalli and 5. galilaeus showing fecundity, frequency of spawns, age when spawn, hatch rate, fry survival

• Management of tilapia ponds for fingerling production

II. Catfish reproduction

• Management of catfish broodponds and broodstock

• Broodstock selection

• Hatchery techniques

III. Carp

• Pond spawning

• Induced hormone spawning

• Broodstock selection

• Management of carp broodstock

IV. Trout reproduction (optional)

• Brief overview of techniques used for trout reproduction

V. All species

• Care of fry

VI. Basic Genetics

• Define key terms (i.e. DNA, chromosome, gene, allele, gametes, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive, hybrid vigor, haploid, diploid, triploid, etc.)

 

• Basic review of simple Mendelian genetics (sufficient to permit understanding of common aquaculture practices such as genetic selection programs, hybridization, sex reversal, triploidy)

• Hybridization

• Sex reversal

• Triploidy

Demonstrations:

• Teach trainees how to sex tilapia, make sure everyone gets plenty of practice.

• Demonstrate removal of pituitary and injection.

Note: An approach that seems to work well when discussing reproduction in different fish is to go through a continuum for each, first discussing how the fish spawns in nature (environment, requirements, behavior, etc.), then moving on to increasingly intensive levels of management for aquaculture situations. For example, with catfish, first describe how they spawn in the wild including certain temperature requirements, mating behavior, a preference for hollow logs or other territories that can be established and defended by the male, the fanning of the eggs by the male to aerate them, etc. Then describe how a farmer might manage for reproduction: The simplest method is "wild-spawning" or simply stocking males and females and letting the fish spawn in the pond. A slightly more intensive approach would be to provide milk cans or other containers for the males to use as their spawning territories. More intensive still, the farmer can collect the eggs from the cans and bring them indoors to a hatchery where paddle-wheels on the troughs imitate the fanning motion of the male in nature.

Seminar: Harvesting/Transport/Processing/Preservation/Preparation

I. Harvesting

• Stress importance of planning, organization, preparation

• Methods (give several possibilities)

• Discuss how a seine net works (a good way to help illustrate this is by using a seine on the ground as you would in a pond in order to observe what the seine does

• Strategies (partial vs. complete harvest, top-off and restock, etc.)

• Timing (holidays, best market days, population in pond, etc.)

• Use of catch basins, live cars

• Sorting - graders, tables, etc.

II. Transport

• Preparing for transport, stress importance of this (people, delivery point, equipment, vehicle, etc.)

• Preparing fish for transport

• Conditions (time of day, temperature, oxygen, ammonia, etc.)

• Aeration (alternatives to Minnow-savers)

• Use of salt, anesthetics and other chemicals in transports

• Densities for transports (relationship to length of trip, fish, temperature, etc.

• Types of transport containers (tanks, drums, jerry-cans, plastic bags, etc.)

• Transporting fry, fingerlings, foodfish, brooders

III. Processing

• Various methods, techniques, cuts (specify which most appropriate for different species; include tilapia, catfish, carp, trout)

• Dress-out percentages (define, discuss for different species and cuts)

• Health considerations when processing fish

• Shelf-life

• Transport of processed fish

IV. Preservation

• Smoking (hot and cold)

• Salting, drying

• Freezing

• Others

V. Preparation: Demonstrate a variety of ways in which fish can be cooked (can do this at fish fry)

VI. IV. Nets (Note: This section may be covered in the Stocking/Sampling/Growth seminar rather than in this one, or responsibility for this information can be shared between the two groups.)

• Parts of a seine, cast net
• Describe different types of nets and their uses
• Describe different types of mesh, how netting is measured, etc.
• Care of nets (treating, sunlight, drying, hanging, etc.)

Demonstrations:

• Work with Stocking/Sampling/Growth team to teach trainees to weave netting. Give assignment for swatch that will fit on a sheet of notebook paper, half inch mesh (this could be done on the field trip) and to hang a seine.

 

• If possible, actually do one or more transports using plastic bags and/or pick-up truck with tank and aeration. Demonstrate all steps involved and share results with the group.

 

• Prepare about three plastic bags of fish for transport (use different densities and see how fish fare over time).

• Set up truck with tanks and aerators (even if don't actually do a truck transport).

• Demonstrate use of a grader.

• Demonstrate salting of fish.

• Make a simple smoker and demonstrate smoking fish.

• Serve as coordinators for fish fry. Prepare fish in a variety of ways, including smoking.

• Demonstrate different ways to dress fish (include scaling and gutting, filet, butterfly, others. Try to include skinning catfish and dressing carp.

• For fish fry, have everyone dress some fish.

• Demonstrate how to properly sharpen knives.

• Do a seining demonstration. Include proper preparation and show good, effective techniques from start to finish. (This demo can take place when harvesting fish for the fish fry or marketing).

Note: This is a time consuming seminar because so much of it is presented through demonstrations. Several of the demonstrations can be included during the fish fry preparations if the coordinators are organized. Encourage this team to develop more demonstrations than are listed here.

Seminar: Marketing and Economics

I. Marketing: define basic concepts and terms (include supply and demand, sensitivity analysis, marketing channels, market niche, middle man, etc.)

• Role marketing plays in stocking and harvesting decisions
• Assessing the market, determining market demands (i.e. big fish vs. small fish)
• Marketing strategies
• Setting prices (how? what if too high or too low?)
• Product promotion and sales (advertising, location, time, presentation of product).

II. Economics: define basic concepts and terms

• Diminishing returns

• Economy of scale

• Profit

• Opportunity costs

• Determination of economic feasibility

• Credit and funding sources (finding them, what information farmer needs to provide)

• Accounting for fish farming

• Define terms (fixed costs, variable costs, operating costs, amortization, depreciation, debit, credit, etc.)

• Assessing economic results

• Maximizing profits

Demonstrations:

• Develop a simple budget and bookkeeping system for a fish farmer.

• Serve as one of coordinators for fish marketing exercise.

Seminar: Levels of Intensity/Complexity/Alternative Management Strategies

Note: For all of the strategies/systems described, discuss advantages/disadvantages, potential problems, appropriateness in various situations, feasibility. Consider needs (real and perceived), availability, ability, resources, infrastructure. Where appropriate, compare growth rates, production figures for various approaches.

Note: This seminar should either begin or conclude with a discussion about the decisions a farmer has to make in terms of his purpose/goal.

Note: Doing the research for this seminar is challenging. Aquaculture Magazine, Catfish Farmer Journal and other trade magazine and journals are good resources.

I. Intensive/Extensive: define the terms, point out that there is a range from one extreme to the other, they are relative terms.

• Discuss the factors that vary with level of intensity (time, labor, cost, inputs)

• Make it clear that fish culture in developing countries does not have to be extensive; the level of technology may be lower, but fish culture can still be intensive within that framework

 

• Reasons for choosing a particular level (purpose, goals (fish for food/fish for profit), diminishing returns.

II. Complexity

• Single species crop: mixed sex, no population control

• stock young, grow out, harvest completely
• stock mixed sizes, continuous cropping

• Single species crop: mixed sex, with population control

• use of predator fish
• monosex

• Polyculture (for two or more crops)

• use of different niches
• predator as a second crop

III. Hybrids

• Reasons: for all males, for "specialty fish", others

• Popular hybrids used (i.e., red tilapia, etc.)

• species crossed
• success rates
• maintaining separate broodstock
• long-term considerations

IV. Integrated Systems

• Rice/fish

• rotating crops
• simultaneous

• Pigs/fish

• Poultry/fish

• Other animals/fish

• Fish/gardens

• Integrated farms

V. Multiple pond systems: rotating harvest

VI. Food fish vs. fingerling production

VII. Culture Systems

• Cages
• Raceways
• Hapas
• Pens
• Tanks
• Others

VIII. Stocking densities and methods: for different systems and different markets

Demonstrations:

• Develop good visual aid to illustrate point about continuum between extensive and intensive.

• Use models, posters or other methods to demonstrate some of the apparatus used in various culture systems (i.e., hapas), and to help trainees visualize integrated systems.

• Give the following assignment, to be completed during the field trip:

• For each of the following cases, develop two appropriate management strategies; the most basic, simple one that will give reasonable results, and one that is more complex. For each, tilapia must be used (though you are not limited to tilapia).

Address all aspects of management, all major decisions that the manager must make.

1. Length of growing season - 12 months Market size - 100 g (3.5 oz)

2. Six months of optimum growing conditions, remaining six months are cool enough to inhibit reproduction and slow growth

Market size - 250 g (9 oz)

3. Length of growing season - 12 months
Market size - any size fish is marketable

Seminar: Pond Ecology and Maintenance

Note: The trainees who have been assigned this topic will be the "narrators" throughout seminar week. They will do an introduction/overview at the beginning, then will introduce each of the other seminars in order to establish the connections among the topics. They should be encouraged to be creative in deciding how to do these introductions. Point out that as the week proceeds, energy levels may fall. Thus, as they prepare the group for each seminar, they should try to boost everyone's enthusiasm for the upcoming topic.

The main part of the Pond Ecology and Maintenance seminar will take place at the end of the week and will be the last presentation (not counting the wrap-up session to be done by the Extension people). This team should stay in close contact with the staff throughout the week.

This seminar is unlike the others in that it is really a synthesis of all of the other topics, rather than its own discrete technical subject. It is very challenging and requires that the team use the other presentations to help them decide exactly what they should cover in theirs. A great deal of creativity and flexibility is required. Since the presentation of this seminar is at the end of the series, it serves as kind of a wrap-up of all of the others.

Some points to include:

• Discuss the various decisions that must be made by a pond manager (i.e., purpose, species, culture system, and many other decisions). This will touch on many of the other seminar topics.

 

• Address aspects of pond ecology and maintenance that may have been overlooked or not quite fit in with other topics as noted throughout the week.

• Consider all of the factors that affect the productivity of a pond. Work from the general to the specific.

• Do a very large, detailed flow chart showing all of the factors and how they interact. The sizes of the arrows should indicate the importance of each interaction. These should be very complete and creativity is in order. For example, pictures rather than or in addition to words make the chart more interesting.

• Facilitate a discussion of "cookbook" answers. Points that come out of this discussion should include:

• There really are no set solutions to problems, no magic numbers

• In fish farming, using your own common sense and problem solving ability is much more useful than trying to blindly plug someone else's formulas or solutions into your situation if you don't fully understand those formulas or solutions. There should be several examples they can use here from training.

• To a large extent, fish culture is still more of an art than a science.

• Discuss types of records a pond manager should keep, possible formats.

Demonstration:

• This seminar should conclude with a "Pond Walk". Lead trainees on a walk around the training ponds. Discuss observations, compare different management practices and the results of those practices. Point out how much can be determined about what is going on in a pond and how it is being managed by careful observation with a "trained eye". For the Pond Walk, it works out best logistically if the group is split into two smaller groups. One team member from this seminar leads each group and facilitates the discussions.

 

• The "Big Board". This should actually be set up as early as possible, preferably as soon as seminar preparation begins. This team should devise a large wall chart or similar system in which every trainee has the responsibility of filling in information about his/her own pond. The purpose is so that trainees can compare the results of their own management techniques with others. Information on this chart should include (for each trainee's pond): stocking rates, species stocked, type of feed used, feeding rates, type and amounts of fertilizer applied, sampling technique, growth rates, FCR, dissolved oxygen fluctuations, secchi disk readings, pH, an other information the trainees think will be helpful.

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