Guidelines for PHAST facilitators and programme managers
In the countries where PHAST has been tested, the results have been inspiring: hygiene behaviours and sanitation have improved, and communities have taken over management of sanitation and water facilities. The investments made in developing the tools necessary for the approach paid off.
The toolkit materials are vital for helping group participants to develop the skills and confidence to think problems through, identify solutions and plan for change. We strongly recommend that you take the time to carefully plan the development of your toolkit with an artist, or artists, using the guidelines which follow here and in the Guidelines for PHAST artists. For further information about making a toolkit see Srinivasan (1991).
Types of toolkits
The ideal toolkit consists of drawings made by local artists to reflect the local culture and conditions. Most of the instructions which follow refer to this type of toolkit.
Prototype toolkits: These are drawings that are generally applicable over a wide cultural area where customs, housing and clothing are nearly the same. Once a prototype toolkit has been made, it may only be necessary to modify a few drawings to look like the specific local setting in which you will be working. Modification will be much simpler if the prototype toolkit drawings have been done as black and white line drawings. This makes it easier to adapt and modify the drawings to suit different situations. These modifications can be done by tracing or photocopying the original drawings and using colour to show regional variations. A prototype toolkit is a good investment at the national level. Remember, though, that rural and urban areas are very different physical environments and often have different water, sanitation and hygiene problems. For this reason you generally cannot use the same toolkit for rural and urban areas, even within the same country.
Creating new drawings for each toolkit can be expensive, but there are ways to cut costs by using a combination of different materials that may be available to you. Some suggestions follow.
Using photographs: Existing photographs can be used to help design specific tools. They can be reproduced in sizes appropriate to the activity and several sets made. This can be an effective technique for some of the tools, for example, for sanitation options and for planning posters, especially if photographs of existing technologies and processes are readily available. But it is less than ideal because details in the photographs may distract participants from the purpose of the discussion. The presence of familiar people and places in the photos can also be misleading and can tend to personalize the discussions and even put people on the defensive.
Using existing materials: Existing hygiene education materials, such as posters and flip-charts can be used creatively and inexpensively to develop the materials for specific activities. Different drawings are separated or cut apart and used in three-pile sorting, for example. Such materials may need to be supplemented with additional drawings. The disadvantage of using existing materials is that they are often not open to different interpretations, which can create problems for the facilitator, particularly with the more open-ended activities. Technical and project manuals can also be a good source of pictures and drawings which can be cut out and separated for specific activities.
Timeframe to make a toolkit
In most instances you will already have a prototype toolkit - usually made up of black and white line drawings - obtained from a PHAST training workshop. This kit will need to be modified to suit local circumstances.
You should allow about one month to prepare the local toolkit because:
- you will need to find an artist, or artists
5 A useful strategy for providing this explanation is to arrange to have the artist or artists attend a PHAST training workshop and to make the drawings during the workshop. See section entitled, “Involve artists in a training workshop”.
You should make a budget for producing the toolkit. This will be based on the number of drawings needed. If possible, it would be best to get estimates of the cost for the same work from three artists, together with a sample of their work. You can then compare prices and the skills of the different artists. Sometimes the cheapest price will not be the best choice. One of the artists might be a little more expensive. But the drawings may be a lot better and the artist may understand what you want much more clearly than the other artist(s) you are considering. In which case, provided you can afford it, it would be better to choose the slightly more expensive artist.
More experienced and professional artists tend to charge by the drawing, while others by the “set”, or by the time spent. If there is a clear work plan and timeframe, and particularly when a workshop is involved, it may be useful to draw up a contract for two, four, or even six weeks. In recruiting artists, it is also useful to consider the possibility of establishing a long-term relationship, giving preference to artists employed by development organizations or freelance artists with an interest in and sensitivity to participatory and development activities. Finally, when negotiating with artists, it is useful to keep in mind that their important skills are frequently undervalued.
Remember to make allowance for any travel costs that might arise when the artist visits the community.
There will be costs for materials (such as paper and paints), for making copies of the drawings and perhaps for having the drawings laminated to make them more durable.
You may find it useful to provide the artist with a form to estimate costs. You can use this form to compare the costs of several artists. It may also mean that costs are not forgotten at the start. It can be a real problem later on if an artist forgets to include, for example, the cost of paper, special drawing pens and inks, and then asks you for more money.
Finding an artist
Try to find an artist who lives in or close to the communities or ethnic group you will be working with. This will produce the best results and also save time and money, as the artist will need to visit the community more than once to observe the people, type of buildings and facilities, etc.
Explaining the task to an artist
Explain that a participatory approach is one that does not focus on transferring a particular message from the facilitator to group participants. Rather, the opposite is true, with more importance attached to getting the participants to share their experiences, ideas, feelings and beliefs, and through this process developing the ability to solve their own problems (see Srinivasan, 1991). Explain that the drawings will be used to help group members think for themselves and participate in the process of making environmental improvements. Give a brief outline of the activities, explain what they are designed to achieve, and show sample drawings.
Explain the number of drawings needed, what they should be of, and how you want the drawings done. Use the Guidelines for PHAST artists in Part III to help you.
Explain that the people, types of housing, vegetation, clothing and types of facilities drawn must look similar to the community or ethnic group you are working with and that this will help people to use the drawings more successfully.
Invite the artist to visit the community with you.
Visiting the community
Arrange a time to meet the artist when you can walk around the community together and get really familiar with the way people dress, where they live, the type of water and sanitation facilities they have, and any problem areas in the community, particularly those relating to water and sanitation.
Make notes and rough sketches of what you see, so that later it will be easier to discuss the drawings that will be needed.
After you have visited the community, either on the same day, or the day after, sit down somewhere quiet with the artist and discuss what you have seen together. Make a list of the drawings you will need.
Involve artists in a training workshop
If possible, the artists should attend a complete PHAST training workshop.
When the workshop participants visit a community, the artist should come along and make initial sketches. Then, while the training workshop continues, the artist should be making the drawings. The draft drawings can be used and discussed in the training sessions, and during further visits to the community, and modified as a result of these visits and discussions. This is a practical and participatory form of pretesting.
Supervise the artist's work
The artist's work should be carefully supervised. Regularly reviewing pencil sketches before they are completed and the final drawing made is advisable. Making changes to a completed drawing can be difficult.
The drawings should also be pretested with community members. This is done by taking the drawings to the community and asking people what they see, and whether they think the drawings look like their area and show cultural features correctly. Drawings should be modified according to the feedback received.
Quality of drawings
Drawings made for PHAST or other SARAR activities are generally simple line drawings. They should be clear and uncluttered and preferably in colour. However, it is best if the original drawings created for a prototype toolkit are first made as black and white line drawings and plenty of copies made, either by tracing or by photocopying the original drawings. These copies can be adapted to reflect local regional situations much more easily than coloured drawings.
Copies of drawings
Facilitators will generally need a number of sets of drawings. So keep a master set in black and white that can be photocopied; as many copies as needed can be coloured.
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