Part 2: Collecting and analyzing data for development of materials
The first step in development and production of materials for neo-literates is to collect and analyze the data concerning the target group. The data on profiles and problems of neo-literates would provide information on (1) sex, (2) occupational group(s), (3) age group(s), (4) region or location of residence, (5) classification by issues, (6) others. The materials prepared should be based and linked with the problems and needs to help neo-literates to improve their quality of life.
Pre-requisite of any survey is clear identification of survey objectives, and survey contents in detail.
Suggested survey methods are:
4) unconventional methods
Individual(s) need to be selected who can conduct the survey. Compilation and organization of data collected by these individuals would provide required information for developing the material.
Appropriate methods of survey must be carefully selected to identify the real needs of the learners. Sometimes it is rather difficult to see the real problems and needs lying behind what are easily seen. Also it is important to conduct a survey in a relaxed atmosphere so that the learners would not be afraid to express their problems and opinions frankly.
1. Methods of Collecting Survey Data
Observation means observing in depth the situation and living conditions of the target group, such as their daily food, clothing, housing, water, health, recreation and sports, environment and population, communication, income, education, culture and their spiritual life. The observation may lead to identification of learners' problems and needs.
Here is an example of an instrument one may use for observation.
1. Distance between house and the animal shed.
( ) far enough
2. Utilization of space for home gardening
( ) well utilized
The questionnaire would cover the following points:
1. Target individual's
2. Questions to ascertain:
a) literacy level
3. Hardships in daily life in the areas of:
4. General information about the survey: a) surveyor's name b) date and time of survey c) place d) name of the person being surveyed
This will aid in interpreting survey data.
Use questions that are easily understood and concretely stated. Avoid ambiguous or compound questions.
If a large number of questionnaires are distributed over a wide area, use 'check' () style, using 'fill-in' (written) answer style only when necessary.
Interview can be done by asking some people in the community, especially community leaders, including formal leaders like Head of the Village, teachers and government officials who live in the village, and informal leaders such as religious leaders, youth leaders, women leaders, medical personnel, and other prominent people in the community. One can also have direct interviews with the target group. If sampling technique is used to limit the response, one can use 5-10% sampling of both community leaders and the people who are categorized as target group.
(a) Structured Interview
For structured interview it is suggested to use open-ended question as in examples below.
1. How frequently do you listen to educational radio programmes?
( ) often
Please tell your reason, why?
2. Do you boil water before you drink?
( ) yes
Please tell your reason, why?
(b) Unstructured Interview
For unstructured interview the questions can be as follows:
1. Would you please tell us about your problem concerning the water for your daily use in your house?
Some of the examples of questions are shown below:
a) Daily food
- What kind of food do you eat everyday?
- How many pairs of clothes do you have?
- Is this your own house?
- Where do you get water for drinking, cooking and washing?
- Where do you go when you get sick?
- Do you have your latrine at home? Private or public?
g), h), i), ...etc.
4) Unconventional method
This method in addition to the three other methods mentioned above is required to collect more information on the problem areas of neo-literate's life.
The following four ways are suggested among others.
1) Single Poster
Draw a village situation on a sheet of paper. It should depict the problems noticed or envisaged by the surveyor. Ask a group of 20-30 people from the village to identify or comment on this poster. Take one problem at a time. Note down the comments and list the problems one by one.
2) Serial Posters
These consist of 5-10 posters. Each poster has a certain picture that can be interpreted as a problem. Ask the viewer to arrange the posters in any sequence and tell a story based on the poster. Problems can be identified from the story they tell.
3) Group Discussion
Through discussions among learners, material producers and others concerned, various needs from different perspectives could be identified.
Problems which may occur in field survey
1) Target groups do not maintain good cooperation because they do not adequately understand the purpose of evaluation, so that it undermines their confidence and makes them apprehensive.
Flexiplan is a set of small pictures, drawn on a thick paper, cut one by one, in such a way that the figure is flexible. For example, a figure of woman can be shown as sitting, standing, running, etc. Many such figures can be made concerning the life and situations of the village. Spread these figures on a table or on the floor, and let the people choose and put flexiplans on flannel cloth, creating their real life situations. Then ask questions about the problems emerging from the flexiplans. Such figures can be cut from old newspapers or dry leaves also, and arrangement can be made on the ground.
2. Classifying and analyzing the survey data
1. New Participation Method
There are number of methods in analyzing collected data. One of them which has been proved effective is a method called "New Participation Method" of ACCU. It allows identification of problems and needs very easily and clearly with the participation of all members i evolved.
There are mainly two (or three) stages involved: (a) making a data map on problems and needs, (b) making a data map on solutions to the problems, and (c) on practical actions. Throughout the process, the members are advised not to refer to any written material as reference.
Procedure of New Participation Method
(1) All the personnel involved in survey form groups of about 7 to 10.
Materials Needed for "New Participation Method"
1) large sheets of paper
Classifying Data According to Ten Basic Aspects of Life
Data collection can be classified according to human needs. 10 basic aspects of life have been identified and defined by Sarvodaya Development Education Institute of India which clearly enumerate human needs:
A. Essentials for Life
B. Socio-Economic Life
6. Environment and Population
C. Educational and Cultural Life
2. Classification of Survey Data through a Priority List
(1) Priority list of collected survey data
All the data collected by observation, questionnaire, interview and unconventional method should be organized and listed carefully, in order of priority of that particular target group.
(2) Basic method of classifying survey data
1) Arrange data collected by observation, interview, questionnaire, unconventional and other methods into separate categories of target group, issue, etc. in order of priority.
3. Identification of Locally Available Resources for preparing materials (financial resources/people's cooperation including resource persons/materials already in the local market)
Before the work begins on the materials, it is necessary to identify:
1) financial resources for development and production of the materials. This includes the amount of money to be used and its source.
Sample of the priority list
[Украинский] [английский] [русский]