The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bonderantis acting president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries.
This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-00-1023-00, Amendments 27 and 29.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-68331 ISBN 0-309-04685-8 S526 Printed in the United States of America
COVER DESIGN by DAVID BENNETT
Panel on the Applications of lliotechnology to Traditional Fermented
ELMER L. GADEN, JR. (Chairman), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
MPOKO BOKANGA, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.
SUSAN HARLANDER, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
CLIFFORD W. HESSELTINE, Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois
KEITH H. STEINKRAUS, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
K. E. AIDOO, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
SAMUEL ANGEL, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel
MOGESSIE ASHENAFI, Awassa College of Agriculture, Awassa, Ethiopia
E. V. CARPIO, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines
HAMID A. DIRAR, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan
SARA FERESU, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
ABED HAMAMA, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Hassan II, Rabat-Instituts, Morocco
DAVID B. HARPER, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
HIROSHI MOTAI, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan
FELIXTRINA E. JONSYN, Njala University College, Freetown, Sierra Leone
J. MAUD KORDYLAS, Arkloyd's Food Laboratory, Douala, Cameroon
M. KROCER, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
J. A. KURMAN, Agricultural Institute, Grangeneuve, Switzerland
L. B. MABESA, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines
REYNALDO MABESA, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines
NGUYEN HOAI HUONG, Institute for Experimental Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
NGUYEN NGOC THAO, Institute for Experimental Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
M. J. R. NOUT, Food Science Department, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
NDUKA OKAFOR, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
MINERVA SD. OLYMPIA, Institute of Fish Processing Technology, College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in Visayas, Iloilo, Philippines
O. B. OYEWOLE, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
OCTAVIO PAREDES-LOPEZ, ClEA-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Irapuato, Gto., Mexico
J. L. RASIC, Food Research Institute, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia
S. SALMINEN, Dairies Cooperative Association, Helsinki, Finland
TAKASHI HAMADA, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan
PAIROTE WIRTYACHAREE, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
MARCY J. WOODBURN, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
YAICHI FUKUSHIMA, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan
LESLIE FOOK-MIN YONG, Aroma Biotech Pte. Ltd., Singapore
National Research Council Staff
GRIFFIN SHAY, Senior Program Officer and Staff Study Director
F. R. RUSKIN, Editor
CONSTANCE REGES, Administrative Secretary
MICHAEL McD. DOW, Acting Director, Board OIZ Science and Technology for International Development
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