1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.
Gatekeeper Series No. 29; Int. Inst. for Environment and Development (IIED), London, 1991, 21 pp.
The introduction of commercial pesticides revolutionised pest control.
These modern presticides have helped to control and reduce crop and livestock losses to a remarkable degree.
The use of these pesticides has created some of today's major environmental and health problems: reduction in the abundance and diversity of wildlife, human health hazards associated with acute or chronic exposure to dangerous products in the workplace, and contaminated air, food and water.
The self-defeating nature of the chemical control strategy that dominates today's crop and livestock protection efforts has also become more apparent in recent years. Repeated applications of synthetic pesticides have selected pesticide resistant pests worldwide, and there are now at least 450 species of insects and mites, 100 species of plant pathogens, 48 species of weeds resistant to one or more products. The deaths of natural enemies has allowed previously harmless organisms to reach pest status.
For these reasons, crop protection specialists are increasingly being asked to develop pest control methods that are more compatible with the goals of a sustainable, productive, stable and equitable agriculture. To meet these aims, research must seek to integrate a range of complementary pest control methods in a mutually enhancing fashion, namely as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM focuses on five control areas:
- cultural pest control: the manipulation of sowing and harvest dates to minimise damage, intercropping, vegetation management and crop rotations;
Amongst users and promoters of IPM, such as researchers, donors, policy makers, pesticide companies, and extension staff, there are significant differences in emphasis and approaches.
Some of the more fundamental differences are briefly discussed in this paper to identify IPM approaches that reflect and reinforce the goals of sustainable and equitable production systems:
- IPM systemic adjustment or structural change,
Concluding, there will be a need to focus on structural changes in agroecosystems, give greater importance to self-sustaining control methods, and draw on the local stocks of knowledge useful for pest management.
Future self-sustaining designs that minimize the need for pest control interventions will require more understanding of complex ecological systems. The move towards system design to minimize pest outbreaks calls for knowledge and decision making as IPM becomes more broadly coordinated with land and water management, conservation of biodiversity, public health protection and soci-economic development.
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Review, USA, biotechnology, sustainable agriculture, herbicide tolerant crops, human health, environment, economics, sociology
GOLDBURG, R. et al.
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