6. Production of annual crops on microcatchments.
In: Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semiarid Regions;
Publ. of CAB, UK; ISBN 0-85198-486-X, 1981, pp. 39-42
Water harvesting for agriculture is an ancient art with proven usefulness for producing food in arid and semiarid regions of the world.
Water is often the limiting natural resource in these regions. The greatest potential for augmenting available water supplies rests in the collection and conservation of precipitation. An estimated 95% of precipitation in arid and semiarid regions of the world is lost to evaporation. A small reduction in these evaporation losses would substantially increase the quantity of water available to agricultural, industrial, and municipal concerns. Agriculture is by far the largest consumer of water, and therefore, conservation in agriculture or substitution of harvested water for traditional water sources in crop production would release large quantities of water to other sectors of society.
Although natural precipitation in an area may be inadequate to raise a crop, enough water can be collected from an entire region for ample crop yields on a portion of the region. Water harvesting enables a greater percentage of precipitation to be put to beneficial use in a water efficient agricultural system.
Some of the simplest water-harvesting systems collect 20% to 40% of the precipitation for later beneficial uses, while a more elaborate system can collect more than 90%.
A number of water-harvesting systems have been developed to suit given regions, crops, and rainfall patterns. Desert-strip-farming experiments to grow two crops per year began in 1978 at the University of Arizona Page Trowbridge Experiment Farm (Page Ranch). Desert-strip-farming is similar to conservation bench-terrace farming and conventional dryland-strip farming in which crops are planted along contours. An important difference, however, is that the fallow areas are used as catchments. The catchment area is often cleared of vegetation shaped, smoothed, compacted, and even treated with sealants to increase runoff efficiency. Furthermore, the adjacent cultivated area, which is formed by leveling a swath along the contour, has a small dike on the downhill side to trap runoff water. Another difference is that unlike dryland-strip farming, where the ratio of fallow to crop is usually 1:1, desert-strip-farming is based on % ratio that varies with the environmental conditions of each specific site. Other variations among systems derive from different methods of treating catchments and storing water.
An important concept in understanding water-harvesting systems is the ratio of catchment area to cultivated area (CCAR). The CCAR depends upon the runoff efficiency of the catchment area, the crop moisture requirements, and the expected quantity and temporal distribution of precipitation. Moisture requirements are determined from consumptive use data for the particular crop and are adjusted to the date of planting and associated considerations.
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Africa, developing countries, Transkei, Ciskei, irrigation projects, case studies, management, human factors, agricultural production, institutional constraints, socio-economy, culture, tradition, inputs, research needs
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