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Закрити книгу / close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Закрити папку / close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Перегляд документу / View the documentAcknowledgements
Перегляд документу / View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
Перегляд документу / View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
Перегляд документу / View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
Перегляд документу / View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
Перегляд документу / View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
Перегляд документу / View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
Перегляд документу / View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
Перегляд документу / View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
Перегляд документу / View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
Перегляд документу / View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
Перегляд документу / View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
Перегляд документу / View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
Перегляд документу / View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
Перегляд документу / View the document14. Nature and society.
Перегляд документу / View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
Перегляд документу / View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
Перегляд документу / View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
Перегляд документу / View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
Перегляд документу / View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
Перегляд документу / View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
Перегляд документу / View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
Перегляд документу / View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
Перегляд документу / View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
Перегляд документу / View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
Перегляд документу / View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
Перегляд документу / View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
Перегляд документу / View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
Перегляд документу / View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
Перегляд документу / View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
Перегляд документу / View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
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Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.

Gatekeeper Series No. 25; IIED, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, UK, 1991, 13 p.

The failure of the traditional trickle-down methods of development is now well documented. Though better recognized in Third World countries, it is also central to the steady erosion of livelihoods in rural, resource-poor regions of the industrialized countries. Perhaps nowhere is it more evident than in rural Appalachian communities of the United States of America.

The Appalachian region refers to the mountainous region in the middle eastern part of the United States, stretching from as far north as western New York state, and running through parts of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia down to Alabama and Missisippi.

Historically, the region has contained some of the poorest socio-economic conditions of any region in the country. It is one of the least developed in the United States in factors including agriculture, unemployment, housing, urbanization, poverty, economic diversity, etc.

The economic crisis in the egion poses a crisis for traditional economic development policy. Historically, the development model for the region has been based on creating a favourable 'business climate', which in turn could be used to lure industry into the region. In the name of maintaining the business climate, workers received low-wages, and communities provided tax and other concessions to industry. Based upon a traditional understanding of 'trickle down' economics, the assumption was that what was good for business was good for communities and local livelihoods. To some extent, within its own definitions of success, the 'business climates' model of development worked. Thousands of industrial plants came to the region. The overall standard of living grew.

A number of methods were used which were similar to those employed in participatory research and extension approaches such as Rapid Rural Appraisal, Rapid Assessment Procedures, and Farmer Participatory Research. A central point was the emphasis upon the development of peoples' knowledge, and peoples' research and analysis as an important part of the process of beginning to reverse the pattern of dependence upon external economic forces. These methods include those described below:

 

- Oral histories
- Community surveys
- Community mapping and drawings
- Decision-makers interviews
- Videos and readings
- Brainstorming and feasibility studies
- Cultural components

The definition of successful development expands to include criterion broader than jobs and income, but also community participation, democratic participation and dignity. Community development - economic, cultural and social - flowers when people value themselves and their neighbours, and begin to work together in common endeavours.

As important as these may be, these case studies and the experience suggest a broader view, especially if one is interested in participatory development. In the latter approach, the development of 'infrastructure' includes human development, an education for creativity, regaining and understanding popular knowledge and history, democratic decision-making, and consciousness of religous and political symbols. With this investment, people can become better equipped to rebuild their own communities and economies.

1065 92 - 2/149

Farming systems research and development

Review, book, rural development, participatory methods, development practice, community development, cultural impact, grassroot movements, future directions
BURBIDGE, J.

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