16. Characterization and environment-management relationships in beans and sorghum intercropped with maize in honduras. (caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras.)
Tesis Mag. Sc. Turrialba, Universidad de Costa Rica; Centro Agronomico Tropical de Invest. y Enseñanza; 1982, 130 p.
Using a modification of the area characterization methodology developed in farming systems research, cropping systems involving beans and sorghum associated with maize (M + B, M + S, M + B + S) were studied in Honduras. By means of a survey of 378 farmers, selected at random from different areas of the country, data was collected of the farm, the soil, the predominant cropping systems and their management. This data was used with secondary information of climate and soils to characterize the three cropping systems and analyze their relationship with different environments. Seventy-five percent of the farms studied were less than six ha in size, and 63 percent less than four ha. The area planted to the cropping systems was even smaller; 75 percent, 50 percent and 61 percent of the M + B, M + S and M + B + S plots respectively were less than 1.4 ha. The majority of the farmers were owner-occupiers, although share-cropping (where the farmer gives part of the harvest and the sorghum straw as payment to the landowner) was evident in the M + S and M + B + S systems. Seventy percent of the farmers utilized all their produce on-farm and only 5 percent sold more than 50 percent of their produce. The use of bought inputs was minimal: only 19 percent used fertilizers and practically none used herbicides, insecticides or fungicides. It was found that the physical environment influenced both the localization of the cropping systems and also their management. As an example of this influence it was showned that the three cropping systems were concentrated at different altitudinal ranges: M + S at less than 750 m; M + S + B at 500 - 1250 m; and M + B between 500 and 2000 m.
Using principal component analysis it was shown that the most variable management practices of M + B were those relating to spatial arrangement of the crops and choice of variety (especially grain color in maize and growth habit in beans). By means of contigency tables and multiple regression it was demonstrated that these management factors were influenced principally by altitude (temperature) and rainfall (quantity and distribution). As the present study only utilized a part of the data collected, it is recommended that further analysis be undertaken to improve our understanding of these cropping systems which are of such influence both in Honduras and Central America.
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Asia, India, field trials, on-farm research, rainfed condition, sandy loam soil, flooding occurrence, intercropping, pigeonpea, pearl millet land equivalent ratio
SINGH, R.A. et al.
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