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Закрити книгу / close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Закрити папку / close this folderAbstracts on agroforestry
Перегляд документу / View the documentAcknowledgements
Перегляд документу / View the document1. Tree products in agroecosystems: economic and policy issues.
Перегляд документу / View the document2. Sustainable use of plantation forestry in the lowland tropics.
Перегляд документу / View the document3. The palcazu project: forest management and native yanesha communities.
Перегляд документу / View the document4. Opportunities and constraints for sustainable tropical forestry: lessons from the plan piloto forestal, quintana roo, Mexico.
Перегляд документу / View the document5. The taungya system in south-west Ghana.
Перегляд документу / View the document6. Planning for agroforestry.
Перегляд документу / View the document7. Sowing forests from the air.
Перегляд документу / View the document8. Agroforestry pathways: land tenure, shifting cultivation and sustainable agriculture.
Перегляд документу / View the document9. Food, coffee and casuarina: an agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands.
Перегляд документу / View the document10. Agroforestry in africa's humid tropics - three success stories.
Перегляд документу / View the document11. Agroforestry and biomass energy/fuelwood production.
Перегляд документу / View the document12. Regeneration of woody legumes in Sahel.
Перегляд документу / View the document13. Medicines from the forest.
Перегляд документу / View the document14. Potential for protein production from tree and shrub legumes.
Перегляд документу / View the document15. Agroforestry for sustainable production; economic implications.
Перегляд документу / View the document16. Living fences. A close-up look at an agroforestry technology.
Перегляд документу / View the document17. Homestead agroforestry in Bangladesh.
Перегляд документу / View the document18. Guidelines for training in rapid appraisal for agroforestry research and extension.
Перегляд документу / View the document19. Erythrina (leguminosae: papilionoideae): a versatile genus for agroforestry systems in the tropics.
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
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Вiдкрити папку i переглянути змiст / Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

8. Agroforestry pathways: land tenure, shifting cultivation and sustainable agriculture.

Unasylva 154, 38, 1986, pp. 2-15

From a project standpoint there are two fundamental ways of arriving at agroforestry: by integrating trees into farming systems or by integrating farmers into forests.

Appropriately selected woody components may contribute to both the productivity and sustainability of farming systems on marginal land in several ways: by enhancing the production of organic matter; by maintaining soil fertility; by reducing erosion; by conserving water; and, by creating a more favourable microclimate for associated crops and livestock. These "service roles" are above and beyond the direct "production roles" trees can also play in supplying food, fodder, fuelwood, building materials and other raw materials for rural industries. In traditional land-use practices, agroforestry is also important in maximizing and diversifying the productivity of even highly fertile lands. Intensive agroforestry systems are most commonly found in areas with a long history of population pressure, indicating their general efficiency as a land-use system.

All tropical land-use systems exhibit varying degrees of "leakiness" with respect to the cycling of nutrients held in the soil-vegetation complex, although systems such as irrigated rice paddies, permanent tree crops and forests are inherently more sustainable than others. It is a fundamental contention of agroforestry that trees have good prospects for plugging many of the holes in tropical farming systems. The degree of "infilling" can vary from slight to virtually complete. Essentially, the decision as to how many and which kind of trees it is profitable to add to the existing pattern of land-use depends on what useful niches for trees can be identified. An agroforestry "niche" in this sense has three components: a functional role within the land-use system; a place within the landscape; and a time within the life cycle of a particular land-use system.

Although many of the recent research thrusts in agroforestry have been directed toward the integration of trees into farming systems, agroforestry also has a role to play in the preservation of forests and the improvement of forest management systems. By providing farmers with a means of producing fuelwood, timber, building poles and other forest products on farmland, agroforestry can significantly reduce the demand on forests and natural woodlands. By doing this in ways that enhance and sustain agricultural productivity, agroforestry can also alleviate some of the pressure for the conversion of forest land into farmland.

Moreover, the integration of farmers into forest management schemes through the use of "compromise" land-use systems based on agroforestry may be one of the few realistic ways of sustaining forestry production on agriculturally pressured forest land.

The purpose of this article is to provide some mental images of the scope and potential role of agroforestry to serve as a background to the discussion of tenure issues. The main assumption is that the interactions between agroforestry and tenure issues are basically of two types: first, tenure factors may pose constraints to the realization of the potential ecological and socio-economic benefits of agroforestry in many land-use systems; and second, agroforestry may offer ways of resolving some existing tenure problems. Tenure issues are far more varied and complex than are reflected here. However, attention is focussed on some of the major changes in tenure that arise in conjunction with the main development trends in tropical land-use. These changes are then viewed in ecological and evolutionary perspectives.

Agroforestry can perhaps provide a simple, equitable, all-round solution in developing countries to the related problems of biomass energy supply, decentralization of rural industry, and the participation of pastoralists in national development.

The purpose of this article has been to raise some questions and provide some images for a positive approach to tenure questions in agroforestry.

1169 92 - 7/83

Agroforestry

Pacific, Papua New Guinea, highlands, coffee, casuarina, food, ICRAF

BOURKE, R.M.

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