Inmost settings in Kenya viral diagnostic assays are not available. Diagnosis of HIV infection- is therefore dependent on the use of antibody based tests. In children due to the presence of maternal antibodies a definitive diagnosis of HIV infection can only be made at or after the age of 1 8 months. The' current Ministry of Health guidelines for HIV diagnosis is a concordant positive result using 2 different ELISA kits.
(In the event that viral diagnostics become widely available then a definitive diagnosis can. be made within 48 hours of birth in 38% of infants. By the end of the 2nd week of life a definitive diagnosis can be made in 93% of infected children. In this context HIV infection is diagnosed by 2 positive HIV virologic tests performed on separate blood samples.)