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close this bookStandard Treatment Guidelines - Ghana (GNDP; 2004; 510 pages)
View the documentPREFACE
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: DISORDERS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: DISORDERS OF BLOOD AND BLOOD-FORMING ORGANS
close this folderCHAPTER 4: CHILDHOOD IMMUNISABLE DISEASES
View the documentIMMUNIZATION
View the documentMEASLES
View the documentPERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH)
View the documentTETANUS
View the documentPOLIOMYELITIS
View the documentDIPHTHERIA
View the documentYELLOW FEVER
View the documentHEPATITIS B
View the documentHAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: PROBLEMS OF THE NEONATE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: DISORDERS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: DISORDERS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: DISORDERS OF THE SKIN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: DISORDERS OF THE GENITO-URINARY SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: HIV INFECTION AND AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND INFESTATIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: EAR, NOSE AND THROAT DISORDERS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: ORAL AND DENTAL CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: DISORDERS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 18: TRAUMA AND INJURIES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 19: EMERGENCIES
View the documentCHAPTER 20: ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN SURGERY
View the documentOTHER PUBLICATIONS
View the documentABOUT THIS BOOK
 

IMMUNIZATION

The childhood diseases which can be prevented by immunization are:

• Measles
• Whooping cough
• Tetanus
• Tuberculosis
• Diphtheria
• Poliomyelitis
• Yellow fever.
• Hepatitis B
Haemophilus influenzae Type B infections


These diseases can have a devastating effect on the health of the child, and can be prevented by immunization. The schedule for immunization for children is as follows:

Age

Vaccine

Remarks

BIRTH

BCG
Polio O

0.05ml intradermally
2 drops orally

6 weeks

Five in One 1
Polio 1

0.5 ml IM
2 drops orally

10 weeks

Five in One 2
Polio 2

0.5 ml IM
2 drops orally

14 weeks

Five in One 3
Polio 3

0.5 ml IM
2 drops orally

9 months

Measles

0.5 ml deep SC or IM

9 months

Yellow Fever

0.5 ml IM

* Five in One" vaccine (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae b and Hepatitis B)


To protect Ghanaian children against five of the diseases described above, a pentavalent vaccine popularly called "Five in One" has been introduced into Ghana’s immunization programme. The new vaccine will protect all children against Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae Type B. It was introduced on 1st January 2002.

It has replaced Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT) in the immunization schedule and is given just like DPT, at 6, 10 and 14 weeks.

The new pentavalent vaccine, like DPT, should not be given to children above 2 years because of the increase in side effects due to the Pertussis component.

Note:

1. Measles - any child over 6 months admitted to hospital and not immunized previously should be given measles vaccine. Children admitted to hospital who are under 9 months and vaccinated in this way must have the vaccination repeated at 12 months of age.

No child should be denied measles vaccine because of past episode of "measles".

2. "Five in One" - Minimum interval between doses is 4 weeks.

3. Immunizaton schedule should be completed if some doses have been missed.

A course of tetanus toxoid vaccinations should be given to all women, schedule is as follows:

TT1 - Give the 1st dose (0.5 ml, SC or IM) at any contact with a woman of child bearing age (15-45 years) including at the 1st antenatal visit.

TT2 - Give the 2nd dose at least 4 weeks after TT1

TT3 - Give the 3rd dose at least 6 months after

TT2 or during a subsequent pregnancy.

TT4 & TT5 - One dose in each of 2 subsequent pregnancies to make up a total of five doses. No further doses will be necessary in subsequent pregnancies.


A course of Tetanus toxoid vaccinations should also be given to any previously unimmunised patient. Dose: 0.5 ml, IM or deep SC, repeat at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. If more than 10 years have elapsed since initial course or last booster, give booster dose of 0.5 ml. In severe contaminated wounds a booster dose may be given if more than five years have elapsed in addition to Human tetanus Immunoglobulin.

 

Adults:

250 units (500 units if more than 12-24 hours have elapsed)

If human tetanus immunoglobulin is not available, Anti Tetanus Sera (ATS) may be used dose:

 

Adults:

1500 IU, IM after a test does of 150 IU (S.C.)

 

Children:

Half adult dose

Absolute Contraindications to Immunization

• A previous vaccination is followed by anaphylaxis, encephalitis or non-febrile convulsions.
• A history of anaphylaxis with ingestion of egg; yellow fever vaccine should not be given.
• Individual with symptomatic HIV infection should not receive BCG and yellow fever vaccines

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