MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING STATE TO STATE PREVALENCE
HIV Prevalence per State end of 2003 and States with ARV Centers
MO-ARVS NASCP - FMOH 15thJune 2004
Since 1986 when the first AIDS case was reported in Nigeria, the disease has since grown to epidemic levels with rapidly increasing prevalence rates of 1.8% in 1993, 3.8% in 1994, 4.5% in 1996, 5.4% in 1999, 5.8% in 2001 and 5% in 2003 based on HIV/Syphilis sero-prevalence sentinel surveys among women attending antenatal clinics. It is estimated that about 3.5 million Nigerians are infected with HIV/AIDS.
The most common modes of transmission are heterosexual intercourse, mother-to-child transmission and through contaminated blood and blood products. The epidemic has grown beyond the high-risk groups to the general population.
Although some parts of the country are more affected than others, all states record more than 1% prevalence. In 2003, prevalence rates ranged from 1.2% in Osun State to 12% State in Cross River State. Nationally, prevalence is higher in urban than in the rural populations. Persons between the ages of 20 - 29 are the most affected although in the South-south and South-west zones, the prevalence is highest among the 15 - 19 age group.
In 1987, the National Expert Advisory Committee on AIDS (NEACA) was inaugurated as the health response to the report of the first AIDS case in 1986. By 1988, the National AIDS and STDs Control Program (NASCP) was established with the mandate to coordinate all HIV/AIDS activities at national and state levels. In 1997, a Presidential committee on AIDS - the National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA) was established to implement the multisectoral response to the epidemic. Thus, Nigeria has passed through several phases in its response to the epidemic; starting from initial denial to a health sector response focusing primarily on prevention, and finally to a multisectoral approach.