The management of children with HIV infection and persistent or recurrent fever is slightly different from that for the management of adults. It is essential that serious infections are excluded or treated if necessary. In an infant under 2 months of age fever is a sign of severe disease.
Children with persistent fever are usually brought in by the mother with the complaint that the child "feels hot". A full history should be taken from the mother and any other symptoms should be elicited. The child should be examined carefully and specifically for chest signs (respiratory rate, chest in-drawing, stridor, rhonchi, crepitations and reduced air entry), enlarged lymph nodes, weight loss, bulging fontanelle, dehydration, neck stiffness, and, hepatosplenomegaly. The child may already be known to be HIV positive, or, the mother has been tested and found to be positive.