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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
close this folderCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
View the document11.1 Neurological complications with secondary mental manifestations
View the document11.2 Changes in mental status - Delirium (acute organic brain syndrome)
View the document11.3 Changes in mental status - AIDS related dementia (ADC) (chronic organic brain syndrome)
View the document11.4 Changes in mental status - AIDS Related Mania
Open this folder and view contents11.5 Mental complications
View the document11.6 Crisis and crisis counseling
View the document11.7 Persons with previous mental disorders
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

11.1 Neurological complications with secondary mental manifestations

A brief overview of common causes of neurological complications that can cause secondary changes in the mental state is presented; this is followed by a guide for features of acute changes in mental state that may occur and the management of these changes before discussing the mental complications of HIV/AIDS.

11.1a: Focal neurological changes suggestive of a mass lesion

• Urgent consideration should be given to all patients presenting with changes in mental state, new onset seizures, or fever and neck stiffness.

• Clinical assessment for evidence of focal neurological signs and increased intracranial pressure should be made before attempting a lumber puncture.


The causes of focal neurological conditions that should be considered include:

• Tuberculosis:
• Primary CNS lymphoma
• Infectious lesions: toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis.


11.1b: Meningitis

If a mass lesion has been ruled out clinically (absence of raised intracranial pressure), a lumber puncture should be performed. Meningitis is a common syndrome amongst HIV positive persons and these are commonly due to bacterial and fungal causes.

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