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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
close this folderCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
View the document13.1 Antiretroviral regimens for HIV infected children
View the document13.2 Goals of Antiretroviral Therapy in children
View the document13.3 Selection of Patients for Antiretroviral Therapy
View the document13.4 Recommended First-Line ARV Regimens in Infants and Children
View the document13.5 Clinical Assessment of Infants and Children Receiving ARV Therapy
Open this folder and view contents13.6 Reasons for Changing ARV Therapy in Infants and Children
View the document13.7 Recommended Second-Line ARV Therapy for Infants and Children
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

13.1 Antiretroviral regimens for HIV infected children

Most children acquire infection through prenatal exposure. Determination of HIV infection in children below 18 months poses special diagnostic challenges. The pathogenesis of HIV infection and the general virologic and immunologic principles underlying the use of ART are similar for all HIV-infected persons. However, when prescribing ART in children, the following considerations should be made:

Possible in utero exposure to ARV drugs.

Differences in immunologic markers (e.g. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, viral load. antibody levels) among children of different age groups.

Changes in pharmacokinetic parameters with age caused by the continuing development and maturation of organ systems involved in drug metabolism and clearance.

Differences in the clinical, virologic and immunological parameters between children and adults and among children of different age groups.

Adherence to treatment for children is influenced by parents/guardians.

All antiretroviral drugs approved for treatment of HIV infection may be used for children when indicated. However, for young children requiring syrup or liquid formulations, ART prescriptions may be limited to those available in these formulations. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic parameters in children vary with age and therefore are more complicated than in adults.

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