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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
close this folderCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
View the document15.1 Malnutrition and HIV/AIDS
View the document15.2 Nutrient Requirements for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
View the document15.3 Good Dietary Practices
View the document15.4 Dietary Practices and Nutrition for Adult PLHA and AIDS Related Symptoms
View the document15.5 Nutritional Issues Associated with ARVs and Other Modern Medicines
View the document15.6 Guidance on Effective Nutrition/Medication Management for Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
View the document15.7 AIDS-wasting Syndrome
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

15.1 Malnutrition and HIV/AIDS

Nutrition and HIV are linked. Any immune impairment as a result of HIV/AIDS can contribute to malnutrition. Malnutrition leads to immune impairment, worsens the effects of HIV, and contributes to a more rapid progression of the disease. Thus, malnutrition both contributes and is a result of HIV disease progression.

A person who is malnourished and then acquires HIV is more likely to progress faster to AIDS because the body is already weak and cannot fight co-infections, particularly without access to ARVs and prophylactic medications. A well nourished person has a stronger immune system for coping with HIV and fighting illness. Figure 14.1 illustrates the relationship between good nutrition and resistance to infection in the context of HIV/AIDS.

Timely improvement of nutritional status can help strengthen the immune system, thereby reducing the incidence of infections, preventing loss of weight and lean body mass, and delaying disease progression.


Figure 10: The Cycle of Good Nutrition and Resistance to Infection in Context of HIV/AIDS

The following symptoms and illnesses commonly caused by HIV infection can lead to malnutrition.

Anorexia: Anorexia as a loss of appetite may occur as a side effect of medications. It leads to general weight loss and is common when individuals are depressed.

Diarrhoea: There are several causes of diarrhoea including bacterial and viral infections, parasites, and as a side effect of some medical treatments. Diarrhea also reduces appetite and leads to poor nutrient absorption. Severe malnutrition can occur following a prolonged period of diarrhoea.

Fever: Fever is common in PLWHA and does not necessarily indicate serious illness. The reasons for fever vary, and it is often hard to determine whether fever is due to HIV or another illness, such as malaria or untreated opportunistic infections. The body’s energy expenditure increases with fever, causing increased energy requirements.

Nausea and Frequent Vomiting: These can result from the drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS or from opportunistic infections.

Thrush: Thrush is common in HIV infected people. These can result in difficulty eating foods, loss of appetite, reduced food intake and malabsorption, leading to weight loss.

Anemia- This can result from poor food intake or caused by HIV itself

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