Energy requirements: The HIV infected person has additional energy needs because of:
• Energy used for HIV infection and opportunistic infections
• Nutrient malabsorption
• Altered metabolism
In the absence of AIDS symptoms (WHO Stage 1), HIV-infected persons should increase energy intake by 10 percent over the level of energy intake recommended for healthy non-HIV-infected persons of the same age, sex and physical activity level.
In the presence of symptoms (WHO Stage 2 and above), HIV-infected persons, including those taking ARVs, should increase energy intake by 20-30% over the level of energy intake recommended for healthy non-HIV-infected persons of the same age, sex and physical activity level.
Protein requirements: HIV-infected persons do not require more protein than the level recommended for healthy non-HIV infected persons of the same age, sex and physical activities level.
Micronutrient requirements: Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals such as vitamins A, B-complex, C, E, selenium, and zinc, which are needed by immune system to fight infection, are common in people living with HIV.
Good nutrition is therefore best achieved by consuming a variety of foods rich in micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B6, B12, and selenium, iron and zinc.