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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
View the document1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contents1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS
View the document1.3 HIV Transmission
View the document1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection
View the document1.5 Natural history of HIV infection
Open this folder and view contents1.6 Progression of HIV infection (see WHO clinical staging criteria in Appendix 1 & 2)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is a major health problem globally. In 2004, it was estimated that about 40 million people were living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s most severely affected region, with only 10% of the world’s population it harbours about two thirds of the global total number of people living with HIV/AIDS. One in 12 adults in this region is reported to be infected with HIV.

Since 1983 when the first cases of AIDS were reported in Tanzania, the HIV epidemic has spread rapidly to all districts and communities affecting all sectors of the society. A total of 18,929 AIDS cases were reported to the NACP from the 21 regions during the year 2003. This resulted into a cumulative total of 176,102 reported cases since 1983 when the first 3 cases were identified in the country

In 2003 over 1.8 million persons were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS and close to 800,000 cumulative AIDS cases. The overall prevalence of HIV infection among blood donors during 2003 was 8.8%. Recent data based on household surveys estimate the seroprevalence in adults in Tanzania to be 7%, with a wide variation across the regions. Most infections are transmitted through sexual intercourse and hence the population most severely affected are the sexually active individuals between 15 and 49 years of age. Women have a higher risk to become infected than men.

The impact of the HIV epidemic has been profound and has affected all sectors. Today, HIV/AIDS is recognized not only as a major public health concern, but also as a socio-economic and developmental problem in Tanzania as in most sub Saharan African countries. Data from the Adult Morbidity and Mortality Project (AMMP) in 2002 showed that HIV/AIDS and TB were the leading causes of mortality in Hai, Temeke and Morogoro Rural districts where the study was done.

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