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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
View the document1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
close this folder1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS
View the document1.2.1 Health Impact
View the document1.2.2 Economic Impact
View the document1.2.3 Social impact
View the document1.3 HIV Transmission
View the document1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection
View the document1.5 Natural history of HIV infection
Open this folder and view contents1.6 Progression of HIV infection (see WHO clinical staging criteria in Appendix 1 & 2)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

1.2.1 Health Impact

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has interacted with other underlying public health problems, most notably tuberculosis. TB remains one of the principal causes of death in persons with HIV infection worldwide. National TB rates have escalated over the past decade in sub Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. Since the mid-1980s, in many African countries with well-organized programs, annual TB notification rates have increased fourfold, reaching peaks of more than 400 cases per 100,000 individuals. In some countries, up to 70% of patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB are HIV-infected. It is reported that in countries of Sub Saharan Africa most admissions are due to HIV related conditions including TB. Most urban districts and regional hospitals in Tanzania report a bed occupancy rate of up to 50-60% for HIV related conditions. The HIV pandemic has reduced resources available for other health problems thus adversely affecting quality of health care services delivered in these countries. In addition, health care personnel are affected as well by the pandemic resulting in human resource crises in hospitals at a time that more resources than ever are needed to start care and treatment programs with ART.

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