The HIV/AIDS pandemic has interacted with other underlying public health problems, most notably tuberculosis. TB remains one of the principal causes of death in persons with HIV infection worldwide. National TB rates have escalated over the past decade in sub Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. Since the mid-1980s, in many African countries with well-organized programs, annual TB notification rates have increased fourfold, reaching peaks of more than 400 cases per 100,000 individuals. In some countries, up to 70% of patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB are HIV-infected. It is reported that in countries of Sub Saharan Africa most admissions are due to HIV related conditions including TB. Most urban districts and regional hospitals in Tanzania report a bed occupancy rate of up to 50-60% for HIV related conditions. The HIV pandemic has reduced resources available for other health problems thus adversely affecting quality of health care services delivered in these countries. In addition, health care personnel are affected as well by the pandemic resulting in human resource crises in hospitals at a time that more resources than ever are needed to start care and treatment programs with ART.