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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
View the document1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
close this folder1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS
View the document1.2.1 Health Impact
View the document1.2.2 Economic Impact
View the document1.2.3 Social impact
View the document1.3 HIV Transmission
View the document1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection
View the document1.5 Natural history of HIV infection
Open this folder and view contents1.6 Progression of HIV infection (see WHO clinical staging criteria in Appendix 1 & 2)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

1.2.2 Economic Impact

The relationship between HIV/AIDS and economic development is complex. HIV/AIDS negatively affects economic growth on one hand and, a weak economy makes it difficult for nations and individuals to mount adequate and comprehensive responses to the epidemic on the other. In addition, reports show that poverty is a powerful co-factor to the spread of HIV/AIDS. The economically and socially disadvantaged, women, youth and other marginalized groups in the society, are disproportionately affected by the epidemic.

Ill health and death due to AIDS are reported to have reduced agricultural labour force, productivity and disposable incomes in many families and rural communities. Data from Kagera, one of the regions most severely affected by HIV/AIDS in Tanzania, indicate that the annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) declined from USD 268 to USD 91 between 1983 and 1994 respectively. Although the decline in GDP was multi-faceted, AIDS was believed to be a major cause. Indeed similar trends of declining GDP were associated with reduced agricultural production and increase in number of AIDS cases in Tanga region.

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