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close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
View the document1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
close this folder1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS
View the document1.2.1 Health Impact
View the document1.2.2 Economic Impact
View the document1.2.3 Social impact
View the document1.3 HIV Transmission
View the document1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection
View the document1.5 Natural history of HIV infection
Open this folder and view contents1.6 Progression of HIV infection (see WHO clinical staging criteria in Appendix 1 & 2)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

1.2.3 Social impact

AIDS is widespread in both urban and rural communities and mostly affects persons at the peak of their sexual and economic activity. Death of a young adult often means loss of a father or/and mother and family’s income generator. Studies conducted in Arusha, Kagera and Mwanza regions show a serious and growing breakdown of social network, which have hitherto sustained African societies. Materialistic practices are on the increase; orphans are not only subjected to material, social and emotional deprivation, but also lack of opportunities for education and health care. Widows and orphans are deprived of their inheritance rights by relatives through the application of outdated traditional practices and customary laws. The widows are often blamed for the premature deaths of their husbands.

Despite these challenges experience has shown that the epidemic can be stabilized even reversed, in countries including those with modest resources. Successful programs are characterized by: strong and high-level political leadership for HIV prevention; a national HIV/AIDS strategic plan; adequate funding for HIV/AIDS response; strong and sustained community involvement and initiatives, with supportive policies. Data from Kagera has shown that a combination of all these factors can indeed result in a decline of HIV incidence. Components of a minimum package for HIV/AIDS response are known. They include but are not limited to: blood safety initiatives, STD management and prevention, care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS including access to drugs. Others are functional referral systems and linkages, education to the general community particularly the youth, condom programming, prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT).

One of the most effective interventions currently available for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), involves the use of various combinations of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART). However, the high cost of these drugs and the infrastructure needed to monitor their use have so far put these medications beyond the reach of most PLHA, especially in third world countries. The price of antiretroviral drugs is progressively declining, making access to HAART a realistic dream even to resource-constrained countries like Tanzania. For optimal use of these drugs, capacity building including training of health personnel, infrastructure strengthening, logistic support and central regulation and policy guidance, are extremely essential.

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