Home page  |  Help  |  Clear
English  |  French
 Search  |  Categories  |  Titles A-Z  |  Countries  |  Compare countries  |  Index  
Full TOC
Expand Document
Expand Chapter
Preferences

close this bookNational Guidelines for the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS - Tanzania (NACP; 2005; 131 pages)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
View the document1.1 Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contents1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS
View the document1.3 HIV Transmission
View the document1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection
View the document1.5 Natural history of HIV infection
Open this folder and view contents1.6 Progression of HIV infection (see WHO clinical staging criteria in Appendix 1 & 2)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF HIV/AIDS CARE AND TREATMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: LABORATORY TESTS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 6: HIV/AIDS AND PREGNANCY
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 7: PEDIATRIC HIV/AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 8: COMMUNITY AND HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLHA)
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 9: COUNSELLING RELATED TO HIV-TESTING AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF COMMON SYMPTOMS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 11: MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 12: MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 13: ARV THERAPY IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 14: USE OF ARVS IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 15: HIV/AIDS AND NUTRITION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 16: MANAGEMENT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 17: CERTIFICATION OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AS CARE AND TREATMENT SITES
 

1.4 Pathophysiology of HIV infection

Interaction between the viral envelope proteins (gp120) and receptors on the cell membrane is critical for the HIV to enter and infect the host cell. High concentrations of the CD4 molecule and co-receptors have been detected on the surface of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Other cells that have been found to have CD4 molecules on their surface include the Langerhans cells (found in the skin) and the microglial cells of the brain.

Following entry of the HIV into a susceptible host cell, using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, the viral genome copies itself from RNA to DNA genetic material. The viral DNA copy enters the nucleus of the host cell and becomes intimately incorporated into the host cell’s own DNA using the enzyme integrase. The virus thus becomes a permanent part of an infected person’s nuclear proteins. There follows a latent period during which the provirus in the infected host cell nucleus is waiting for an external stimulus to start reproducing.

CD4+ T lymphocytes when stimulated by new HIV, other infections and infestations which would normally result in the CD4+ T lymphocyte reproducing itself, now respond to these stimuli by manufacturing HIV. As more and more viruses are produced and leave the host cell, the cell membrane weakens leading eventually to the death of the infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. Other factors, most of which are still unknown, lead to the rapid depletion of the CD4+ T lymphocytes. The decline in the CD4+ T lymphocytes count is a reflection of the declining cellular immunity, which eventually manifests itself by the appearance of opportunistic infections.

to previous sectionto next section

Please provide your feedback English  |  French