HIV infection is now a common medical complication for pregnancies in Tanzania. This has major implications in the management of pregnancy and childbirth. HIV infection in pregnancy like in non-pregnancy is acquired through the same modes as elaborated in Chapter 1. However, HIV in pregnancy is special in that it can be transmitted from mother to child.
The HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Tanzania varies from 4 - 32%. However, the majority do not know their sero-status, although some of them learn about it after they are tested in ANC. It should be noted that HIV infection leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-maturity, low birth weight, congenital malformations and stillbirths. However, pregnancy does not adversely affect the course of HIV/AIDS except in advanced stages of the infection.