• The median total amount spent on medicines by the households during an illness was found to be KShs. 253.00.
• The median amount spent on medicines per week was found to be KShs. 169.85.
• The proportion of household expenses spent on medicines during the illness of previous two weeks of study is 17.4% while the proportion spent on medicines in an average week is 16.7%.
• The proportion of households seeking consultation from public health facilities was found to be 45%. The proportions of households seeking consultation from private health facilities, private pharmacies and advice from friends were found to be 16%, 12% and 2% respectively (Figure 4.8). However, 10% of households use medications without consultation.
• The median sum of amount spent on medicines from private pharmacies/kiosks was found to be KShs 84.68 whereas in the public health facilities and private health facilities the sum amount spent was KShs 46.33 and KShs 12.08 respectively. Medicines from traditional healers and mission/NGO health facilities were found to cost less than KShs 1.00.
• The primary reason for not obtaining all prescribed medicines was lack of money. (See fig. 4.9). 6% of all households surveyed did not have enough money to buy all the medicines prescribed
• The highest amount spent on medicines was from private pharmacy through consultation, (KShs. 84.68) followed by public health facilities (KShs. 46.33) and then private health clinics (12.08). (See figure 4.10)
Figure 4.8 Sources of consultation
Figure 4.9 Primary reason for not obtaining all prescribed medicines
Figure 4.10 Average amount spent on medicines from each source of consultation
• Develop and implement interventions to increase the availability of medicines in health facilities.
• Investigate and develop interventions to reduce the long stock-out duration in public health facilities and regional warehouses.
• Investigate and develop strategies for improving the quality of stock records in both the public health facilities and regional warehouses.
• Investigate and develop interventions to ensure that all the prescribed medicines are dispensed to patients in public health facilities.
• Design, establish and maintain a system for the monitoring and dissemination of the cost of essential drugs to both suppliers and consumers so as to ensure the availability of essential drugs to the consumers at the minimum possible prices.