Schistosomiasis, a waterborne parasitic infection, is caused by several species of trematode worms (blood flukes).
Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused principally by schistosoma mansoni as well as S.japonicum, S.mekongi, and S.intercalatum. Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by S.haematobium. The latter is an important predisposing cause of squamous cell cancer of the bladder.
Praziquantel is used for the treatment of chronic schistosomiasis and is effective against all species of schistosomes. Metriphonate and oxamniquine are also used but are only effective against S.haematobium and S.mansoni respectively. Antischistosomal drugs may cause clinical deterioration if used during the acute phase of infection; treatment is either delayed or given in conjunction with a corticosteroid.
Indication: - schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mekongi, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma manasoni, and Schistosoma hematobium.
Cautions: - moderate to severe liver disease and in those hypersensitive to praziquantel; pregnancy and breast-feeding, nursing mothers. The drug causes drowsiness that patients are to be advised not to drive vehicles or operate machineries.
Side effects: - CNS effects (dizziness, drowsiness, headache, malaise), fever, GIT effects (abdominal cramps or pain, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, bloody diarrhoea), increased sweating, skin rash, hives or itching.
Dose and Administration -
Adult and Child (above 4), S. haematobium, S.mansoni - oral, 20mg per kg of body weight two times a day for 1 day. S.Japonium, S. mekongi -oral, 20mg per kg of body weight 3 times a day for 1 day.
Storage: - store below 30°c